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trans2.c

/* $Id: trans2.c,v 1.11.2.2 2002/06/01 15:52:04 karim Exp $

Copyright (C) 2000  The PARI group.

This file is part of the PARI/GP package.

PARI/GP is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
Foundation. It is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
ANY WARRANTY WHATSOEVER.

Check the License for details. You should have received a copy of it, along
with the package; see the file 'COPYING'. If not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA. */

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                   TRANSCENDENTAL FONCTIONS                     **/
/**                          (part 2)                              **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/
#include "pari.h"

extern GEN mpsin(GEN x);
static GEN mpach(GEN x);

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                       FONCTION ARCTG                           **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/

static GEN
mpatan(GEN x)
{
  long l,l1,l2,n,m,u,i,av0,av,lp,e,sx,s;
  double alpha,beta,gama=1.0,delta,fi;
  GEN y,p1,p2,p3,p4,p5,unr;

  sx=signe(x);
  if (!sx)
  {
    y=cgetr(3); y[1]=x[1]; y[2]=0; return y;
  }
  l = lp = lg(x);
  if (sx<0) setsigne(x,1);
  u = cmprs(x,1);
  if (!u)
  {
    y=mppi(l+1); setexpo(y,-1);
    if (sx<0)
    {
      setsigne(x,-1);
      setsigne(y,-1);
    }
    return y;
  }

  e = expo(x);
  if (e>0) lp += (e>>TWOPOTBITS_IN_LONG);

  y=cgetr(lp); av0=avma;
  p1=cgetr(l+1); affrr(x,p1); setsigne(x,sx);
  if (u==1) divsrz(1,p1,p1);
  e = expo(p1);
  if (e<-100)
    alpha = log(PI)-e*LOG2;
  else
  {
    alpha = rtodbl(p1);
    alpha = log(PI/atan(alpha));
  }
  beta = (bit_accuracy(l)>>1) * LOG2;
  delta=LOG2+beta-alpha/2;
  if (delta<=0) { n=1; m=0; }
  else
  {
    fi=alpha-2*LOG2;
    if (delta>=gama*fi*fi/LOG2)
    {
      n=(long)(1+sqrt(gama*delta/LOG2));
      m=(long)(1+sqrt(delta/(gama*LOG2))-fi/LOG2);
    }
    else
    {
      n=(long)(1+beta/fi); m=0;
    }
  }
  l2=l+1+(m>>TWOPOTBITS_IN_LONG);
  p2=cgetr(l2); p3=cgetr(l2);
  affrr(p1,p2); av=avma;
  for (i=1; i<=m; i++)
  {
    p5 = mulrr(p2,p2); setlg(p5,l2);
    p5 = addsr(1,p5); setlg(p5,l2);
    p5 = mpsqrt(p5);
    p5 = addsr(1,p5); setlg(p5,l2);
    divrrz(p2,p5,p2); avma=av;
  }
  mulrrz(p2,p2,p3); l1=4;
  unr=realun(l2); setlg(unr,4);
  p4=cgetr(l2); setlg(p4,4);
  divrsz(unr,2*n+1,p4);

  s=0; e=expo(p3); av=avma;
  for (i=n; i>=1; i--)
  {
    setlg(p3,l1); p5 = mulrr(p4,p3);
    s -= e; l1 += (s>>TWOPOTBITS_IN_LONG);
    if (l1>l2) l1=l2;
    s %= BITS_IN_LONG;
    setlg(unr,l1); p5 = subrr(divrs(unr,2*i-1), p5);
    setlg(p4,l1); affrr(p5,p4); avma=av;
  }
  setlg(p4,l2); p4 = mulrr(p2,p4);
  setexpo(p4, expo(p4)+m);
  if (u==1)
  {
    p5 = mppi(lp+1); setexpo(p5,0);
    p4 = subrr(p5,p4);
  }
  if (sx == -1) setsigne(p4,-signe(p4));
  affrr(p4,y); avma=av0; return y;
}

GEN
gatan(GEN x, long prec)
{
  long av,tetpil;
  GEN y,p1;

  switch(typ(x))
  {
    case t_REAL:
      return mpatan(x);

    case t_COMPLEX:
      av=avma; p1=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX);
      p1[1]=lneg((GEN)x[2]);
      p1[2]=x[1]; tetpil=avma;
      y=gerepile(av,tetpil,gath(p1,prec));
      p1=(GEN)y[1]; y[1]=y[2]; y[2]=(long)p1;
      setsigne(p1,-signe(p1)); return y;

    case t_SER:
      av=avma; if (valp(x)<0) err(negexper,"gatan");
      if (lg(x)==2) return gcopy(x);
      /*Now we can assume lg(x)>2*/
      p1=gdiv(derivser(x), gaddsg(1,gsqr(x)));
      y=integ(p1,varn(x)); if (valp(x)) return gerepileupto(av,y);

      p1=gatan((GEN)x[2],prec); tetpil=avma;
      return gerepile(av,tetpil,gadd(p1,y));

    case t_INTMOD: case t_PADIC:
      err(typeer,"gatan");
  }
  return transc(gatan,x,prec);
}

void
gatanz(GEN x, GEN y)
{
  long av=avma,prec = precision(y);

  if (!prec) err(infprecer,"gatanz");
  gaffect(gatan(x,prec),y); avma=av;
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                      FONCTION ARCSINUS                         **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/

/* x is non zero |x| <= 1 */
static GEN
mpasin(GEN x)
{
  long l,u,v,av;
  GEN y,p1;

  u=cmprs(x,1); v=cmpsr(-1,x);
  if (!u || !v)
  {
    y=mppi(lg(x)); setexpo(y,0);
    if (signe(x)<0) setsigne(y,-1);
    return y;
  }
  l = lg(x); y=cgetr(l); av=avma;

  p1 = cgetr(l+1); mulrrz(x,x,p1);
  subsrz(1,p1,p1);
  divrrz(x,mpsqrt(p1),p1);
  affrr(mpatan(p1),y); if (signe(x)<0) setsigne(y,-1);
  avma=av; return y;
}

GEN
gasin(GEN x, long prec)
{
  long av,tetpil,l,sx;
  GEN y,p1;

  switch(typ(x))
  {
    case t_REAL: sx=signe(x);
      if (!sx) { y=cgetr(3); y[1]=x[1]; y[2]=0; return y; }
      if (sx<0) setsigne(x,1);
      if (cmpsr(1,x)>=0) { setsigne(x,sx); return mpasin(x); }

      y=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX);
      y[1]=lmppi(lg(x)); setexpo(y[1],0);
      y[2]=lmpach(x);
      if (sx<0)
      {
        setsigne(y[1],-signe(y[1]));
        setsigne(y[2],-signe(y[2]));
        setsigne(x,sx);
      }
      return y;

    case t_COMPLEX:
      av=avma; p1=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX);
      p1[1]=lneg((GEN)x[2]);
      p1[2]=x[1]; tetpil=avma;
      y=gerepile(av,tetpil,gash(p1,prec));
      l=y[1]; y[1]=y[2];
      y[2]=l; gnegz((GEN)l,(GEN)l);
      return y;

    case t_SER:
      if (gcmp0(x)) return gcopy(x);
      /*Now, we can assume lg(x)>2*/
      av=avma; if (valp(x)<0) err(negexper,"gasin");
      p1=gdiv(derivser(x), gsqrt(gsubsg(1,gsqr(x)),prec));
      y=integ(p1,varn(x)); if (valp(x)) return gerepileupto(av,y);

      p1=gasin((GEN)x[2],prec); tetpil=avma;
      return gerepile(av,tetpil,gadd(p1,y));

    case t_INTMOD: case t_PADIC:
      err(typeer,"gasin");
  }
  return transc(gasin,x,prec);
}

void
gasinz(GEN x, GEN y)
{
  long av=avma, prec = precision(y);

  if (!prec) err(infprecer,"gasinz");
  gaffect(gasin(x,prec),y); avma=av;
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                      FONCTION ARCCOSINUS                       **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/

/* |x|<=1 */
static GEN
mpacos(GEN x)
{
  long l,u,v,sx,av;
  GEN y,p1,p2;

  u=cmprs(x,1); v=cmpsr(-1,x); sx = signe(x);
  if (!sx)
  {
    l=expo(x)>>TWOPOTBITS_IN_LONG; if (l>=0) l = -1;
    y=mppi(2-l); setexpo(y,0); return y;
  }
  l=lg(x);
  if (!u)
  {
    y = cgetr(3);
    y[1] = evalexpo(-(bit_accuracy(l)>>1));
    y[2] = 0; return y;
  }
  if (!v) return mppi(l);
  y=cgetr(l); av=avma;

  p1=cgetr(l+1);
  if (expo(x)<0)
  {
    mulrrz(x,x,p1);
    subsrz(1,p1,p1);
    p1 = mpsqrt(p1); divrrz(x,p1,p1);
    p1 = mpatan(p1);
    p2 = mppi(l); setexpo(p2,0);
    p1 = subrr(p2,p1);
  }
  else
  {
    p2=cgetr(l+1);
    if (sx>0) addsrz(1,x,p1); else subsrz(1,x,p1);
    subsrz(2,p1,p2);
    mulrrz(p1,p2,p1);
    p1 = mpsqrt(p1); divrrz(p1,x,p1);
    p1 = mpatan(p1);
    if (sx<0) { setlg(p1,l); p1 = addrr(mppi(l),p1); }
  }
  affrr(p1,y); avma=av; return y;
}

GEN
gacos(GEN x, long prec)
{
  long av,tetpil,l,sx;
  GEN y,p1;

  switch(typ(x))
  {
    case t_REAL: sx=signe(x);
      if (sx<0) setsigne(x,1);
      if (cmprs(x,1)<=0) { setsigne(x,sx); return mpacos(x); }

      y=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX); y[2]=lmpach(x);
      if (sx<0) y[1]=lmppi(lg(x));
      else
      {
      y[1]=zero; setsigne(y[2],-signe(y[2]));
      }
      setsigne(x,sx); return y;

    case t_COMPLEX:
      y=gach(x,prec);
      l=y[1]; y[1]=y[2]; y[2]=l;
      setsigne(y[2],-signe(y[2])); return y;

    case t_SER: av=avma;
      if (valp(x)<0) err(negexper,"gacos");
      if (lg(x)>2)
      {
      p1=integ(gdiv(derivser(x), gsqrt(gsubsg(1,gsqr(x)),prec)),varn(x));
      if (gcmp1((GEN)x[2]) && !valp(x))/*x=1+O(x^k);k>=1*/
      {
        tetpil=avma; return gerepile(av,tetpil,gneg(p1));
      }
      } 
      else p1=x;
      if (lg(x)==2 || valp(x)) { y=mppi(prec); setexpo(y,0); }
      else y=gacos((GEN)x[2],prec);
      tetpil=avma; return gerepile(av,tetpil,gsub(y,p1));

    case t_INTMOD: case t_PADIC:
      err(typeer,"gacos");
  }
  return transc(gacos,x,prec);
}

void
gacosz(GEN x, GEN y)
{
  long av=avma, prec = precision(y);

  if (!prec) err(infprecer,"gacosz");
  gaffect(gacos(x,prec),y); avma=av;
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                      FONCTION ARGUMENT                         **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/

/* we know that x and y are not both 0 */
static GEN
mparg(GEN x, GEN y)
{
  long prec,sx,sy;
  GEN theta,pitemp;

  sx=signe(x); sy=signe(y);
  if (!sy)
  {
    if (sx>0)
    {
      theta=cgetr(3); theta[1]=y[1]-expo(x);
      theta[2]=0; return theta;
    }
    return mppi(lg(x));
  }
  prec = lg(y); if (prec<lg(x)) prec = lg(x);
  if (!sx)
  {
    theta=mppi(prec); setexpo(theta,0);
    if (sy<0) setsigne(theta,-1);
    return theta;
  }

  if (expo(x)-expo(y) > -2)
  {
    theta = mpatan(divrr(y,x));
    if (sx>0) return theta;
    pitemp=mppi(prec);
    if (sy>0) return addrr(pitemp,theta);
    return subrr(theta,pitemp);
  }
  theta = mpatan(divrr(x,y));
  pitemp=mppi(prec); setexpo(pitemp,0);
  if (sy>0) return subrr(pitemp,theta);

  theta = addrr(pitemp,theta);
  setsigne(theta,-signe(theta)); return theta;
}

static GEN
rfix(GEN x,long prec)
{
  GEN p1;
  switch(typ(x))
  {
    case t_INT: case t_FRAC: case t_FRACN:
      p1=cgetr(prec); gaffect(x,p1); return p1;
  }
  return x;
}

static GEN
sarg(GEN x, GEN y, long prec)
{
  long av=avma;
  x = rfix(x,prec); y = rfix(y,prec);
  return gerepileupto(av,mparg(x,y));
}

GEN
garg(GEN x, long prec)
{
  GEN p1;
  long av,tx=typ(x),tetpil;

  if (gcmp0(x)) err(talker,"zero argument in garg");
  switch(tx)
  {
    case t_REAL:
      prec=lg(x); /* fall through */
    case t_INT: case t_FRAC: case t_FRACN:
      return (gsigne(x)>0)? realzero(prec): mppi(prec);

    case t_QUAD:
      av=avma; gaffsg(1,p1=cgetr(prec)); p1=gmul(p1,x);
      tetpil=avma; return gerepile(av,tetpil,garg(p1,prec));

    case t_COMPLEX:
      return sarg((GEN)x[1],(GEN)x[2],prec);

    case t_VEC: case t_COL: case t_MAT:
      return transc(garg,x,prec);
  }
  err(typeer,"garg");
  return NULL; /* not reached */
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                 FONCTION COSINUS HYPERBOLIQUE                  **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/

static GEN
mpch(GEN x)
{
  long l,av;
  GEN y,p1;

  if (gcmp0(x)) return gaddsg(1,x);

  l=lg(x); y=cgetr(l); av=avma;
  p1=mpexp(x); p1 = addrr(p1, divsr(1,p1));
  setexpo(p1, expo(p1)-1);
  affrr(p1,y); avma=av; return y;
}

GEN
gch(GEN x, long prec)
{
  long av;
  GEN p1;

  switch(typ(x))
  {
    case t_REAL:
      return mpch(x);

    case t_SER:
      if (gcmp0(x) && valp(x) == 0) return gcopy(x);
    case t_COMPLEX:
      av = avma; p1 = gexp(x,prec); p1 = gadd(p1, ginv(p1));
      return gerepileupto(av, gmul2n(p1,-1));

    case t_INTMOD: case t_PADIC:
      err(typeer,"gch");
  }
  return transc(gch,x,prec);
}

void
gchz(GEN x, GEN y)
{
  long av=avma,prec = precision(y);

  if (!prec) err(infprecer,"gchz");
  gaffect(gch(x,prec),y); avma=av;
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                 FONCTION SINUS HYPERBOLIQUE                    **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/

static GEN
mpsh(GEN x)
{
  long l,av;
  GEN y,p1;

  if (!signe(x))
  {
    y=cgetr(3); y[1]=x[1]; y[2]=0; return y;
  }
  l=lg(x); y=cgetr(l); av=avma;
  p1=mpexp(x); p1 = addrr(p1, divsr(-1,p1));
  setexpo(p1, expo(p1)-1);
  affrr(p1,y); avma=av; return y;
}

GEN
gsh(GEN x, long prec)
{
  long av,tetpil;
  GEN p1;

  switch(typ(x))
  {
    case t_REAL:
      return mpsh(x);

    case t_COMPLEX:
      av=avma; p1=gexp(x,prec);
      p1=gsub(p1,ginv(p1)); tetpil=avma;
      return gerepile(av,tetpil,gmul2n(p1,-1));

    case t_SER:
      if (gcmp0(x)) return gcopy(x);

      av=avma; p1=gexp(x,prec); p1=gsub(p1,gdivsg(1,p1));
      tetpil=avma; return gerepile(av,tetpil,gmul2n(p1,-1));

    case t_INTMOD: case t_PADIC:
      err(typeer,"gsh");
  }
  return transc(gsh,x,prec);
}

void
gshz(GEN x, GEN y)
{
  long av=avma, prec = precision(y);

  if (!prec) err(infprecer,"gshz");
  gaffect(gsh(x,prec),y); avma=av;
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                 FONCTION TANGENTE HYPERBOLIQUE                 **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/

static GEN
mpth(GEN x)
{
  long l,av;
  GEN y,p1,p2;

  if (!signe(x))
  {
    y=cgetr(3); y[1]=x[1]; y[2]=0;
    return y;
  }
  l=lg(x); y=cgetr(l); av=avma;

  p1=cgetr(l+1); affrr(x,p1);
  setexpo(p1,expo(p1)+1);
  p1 = mpexp1(p1);
  p2 = addsr(2,p1); setlg(p2,l+1);
  p1 = divrr(p1,p2);
  affrr(p1,y); avma=av; return y;
}

GEN
gth(GEN x, long prec)
{
  long av,tetpil;
  GEN p1,p2,p3;

  switch(typ(x))
  {
    case t_REAL:
      return mpth(x);

    case t_COMPLEX:
      av=avma; p1=gexp(gmul2n(x,1),prec);
      p1=gdivsg(-2,gaddgs(p1,1)); tetpil=avma;
      return gerepile(av,tetpil,gaddsg(1,p1));

    case t_SER:
      if (gcmp0(x)) return gcopy(x);

      av=avma; p1=gexp(gmul2n(x ,1),prec);
      p2=gsubgs(p1,1); p3=gaddgs(p1,1);
      tetpil=avma; return gerepile(av,tetpil,gdiv(p2,p3));

    case t_INTMOD: case t_PADIC:
      err(typeer,"gth");
  }
  return transc(gth,x,prec);
}

void
gthz(GEN x, GEN y)
{
  long av=avma, prec = precision(y);

  if (!prec) err(infprecer,"gthz");
  gaffect(gth(x,prec),y); avma=av;
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**             FONCTION ARGUMENT SINUS HYPERBOLIQUE               **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/

/* x is non-zero */
static GEN
mpash(GEN x)
{
  long s=signe(x),av;
  GEN y,p1;

  y=cgetr(lg(x)); av=avma;
  p1 = (s<0)? negr(x): x;
  p1 = addrr(p1,mpsqrt(addsr(1,mulrr(p1,p1))));
  p1 = mplog(p1); if (s<0) setsigne(p1,-signe(p1));
  affrr(p1,y); avma=av; return y;
}

GEN
gash(GEN x, long prec)
{
  long av,tetpil,sx,sy,sz;
  GEN y,p1;

  if (gcmp0(x)) return gcopy(x);
  switch(typ(x))
  {
    case t_REAL:
      return mpash(x);

    case t_COMPLEX:
      av=avma; p1=gaddsg(1,gsqr(x));
      p1=gadd(x,gsqrt(p1,prec));
      tetpil=avma; y=glog(p1,prec);
      sz=gsigne((GEN)y[1]);
      sx=gsigne((GEN)p1[1]);
      sy=gsigne((GEN)p1[2]);
      if (sx>0 || (!sx && sy*sz<=0)) return gerepile(av,tetpil,y);

      y=gneg_i(y); p1=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX); p1[1]=zero;
      p1[2]=lmppi(prec); if (sy<0) setsigne(p1[2],-1);
      tetpil=avma;
      return gerepile(av,tetpil,gadd(y,p1));

    case t_SER:
      if (gcmp0(x)) return gcopy(x);
      if (valp(x)<0) err(negexper,"gash");

      av=avma; p1=gdiv(derivser(x),gsqrt(gaddsg(1,gsqr(x)),prec));
      y = integ(p1,varn(x)); if (valp(x)) return gerepileupto(av,y);
      p1=gash((GEN)x[2],prec);
      tetpil=avma; return gerepile(av,tetpil,gadd(p1,y));

    case t_INTMOD: case t_PADIC:
      err(typeer,"gash");
  }
  return transc(gash,x,prec);
}

void
gashz(GEN x, GEN y)
{
  long av=avma, prec = precision(y);

  if (!prec) err(infprecer,"gashz");
  gaffect(gash(x,prec),y); avma=av;
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**            FONCTION ARGUMENT COSINUS HYPERBOLIQUE              **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/

static GEN
mpach(GEN x)
{
  long l,av;
  GEN y,p1;

  l=lg(x); y=cgetr(l); av=avma;

  p1=cgetr(l+1); affrr(x,p1);
  p1 = mulrr(p1,p1);
  subrsz(p1,1,p1);
  p1 = mpsqrt(p1);
  p1 = mplog(addrr(x,p1));
  affrr(p1,y); avma=av; return y;
}

GEN
gach(GEN x, long prec)
{
  long av,tetpil;
  GEN y,p1;

  switch(typ(x))
  {
    case t_REAL:
      if (gcmpgs(x,1)>=0) return mpach(x);

      y=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX);
      if (gcmpgs(x,-1)>=0)
      {
      y[2]=lmpacos(x); y[1]=zero;
      return y;
      }
      av=avma; p1=mpach(gneg_i(x)); tetpil=avma;
      y[1]=lpile(av,tetpil,gneg(p1));
      y[2]=lmppi(lg(x));
      return y;

    case t_COMPLEX:
      av=avma; p1=gaddsg(-1,gsqr(x));
      p1=gadd(x,gsqrt(p1,prec)); tetpil=avma;
      y=glog(p1,prec);
      if (signe(y[2])<0) { tetpil=avma; y=gneg(y); }
      return gerepile(av,tetpil,y);

    case t_SER:
      av=avma; if (valp(x)<0) err(negexper,"gach");
      p1=gdiv(derivser(x),gsqrt(gsubgs(gsqr(x),1),prec));
      y=integ(p1,varn(x));
      if (!valp(x) && gcmp1((GEN)x[2])) return gerepileupto(av,y);
      if (valp(x))
      {
      p1=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX); p1[1]=zero; p1[2]=lmppi(prec);
      setexpo(p1[2],0);
      }
      else p1=gach((GEN)x[2],prec);
      tetpil=avma; return gerepile(av,tetpil,gadd(p1,y));

    case t_INTMOD: case t_PADIC:
      err(typeer,"gach");
  }
  return transc(gach,x,prec);
}

void
gachz(GEN x, GEN y)
{
  long av=avma,prec = precision(y);

  if (!prec) err(infprecer,"gachz");
  gaffect(gach(x,prec),y); avma=av;
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**           FONCTION ARGUMENT TANGENTE HYPERBOLIQUE              **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/

static GEN
mpath(GEN x)
{
  long av;
  GEN y,p1;

  if (!signe(x))
  {
    y=cgetr(3); y[1]=x[1]; y[2]=0;
    return y;
  }
  y=cgetr(lg(x)); av=avma;
  p1 = addrs(divsr(2,subsr(1,x)),-1);
  affrr(mplog(p1), y); avma=av;
  setexpo(y,expo(y)-1); return y;
}

GEN
gath(GEN x, long prec)
{
  long av,tetpil;
  GEN y,p1;

  switch(typ(x))
  {
    case t_REAL:
      if (expo(x)<0) return mpath(x);

      av=avma; p1=addrs(divsr(2,addsr(-1,x)),1);
      tetpil=avma; y=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX);
      p1=mplog(p1); setexpo(p1,expo(p1)-1);
      y[1]=(long)p1;
      y[2]=lmppi(lg(x)); setexpo(y[2],0);
      return gerepile(av,tetpil,y);

    case t_COMPLEX:
      av=avma;
      p1=gaddgs(gdivsg(2,gsubsg(1,x)),-1);
      p1=glog(p1,prec); tetpil=avma;
      return gerepile(av,tetpil,gmul2n(p1,-1));

    case t_SER:
      av=avma; if (valp(x)<0) err(negexper,"gath");
      p1=gdiv(derivser(x), gsubsg(1,gsqr(x)));
      y = integ(p1,varn(x)); if (valp(x)) return gerepileupto(av,y);
      p1=gath((GEN)x[2],prec); tetpil=avma;
      return gerepile(av,tetpil,gadd(p1,y));

    case t_INTMOD: case t_PADIC:
      err(typeer,"gath");
  }
  return transc(gath,x,prec);
}

void
gathz(GEN x, GEN y)
{
  long av=avma, prec = precision(y);

  if (!prec) err(infprecer,"gathz");
  gaffect(gath(x,prec),y); avma=av;
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**             FONCTION TABLEAU DES NOMBRES DE BERNOULLI          **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/
#define BERN(i)       (B + 3 + (i)*B[2])
/* pour calculer B_0,B_2,...,B_2*nb */
void
mpbern(long nb, long prec)
{
  long n,m,i,j,d,d1,d2,l,av,av2,code0;
  GEN p1,p2, B;

  if (nb<0) nb=0;
  if (bernzone && bernzone[1]>=nb && bernzone[2]>=prec) return;
  d = 3 + prec*(nb+1); B=newbloc(d);
  B[0]=evallg(d);
  B[1]=nb;
  B[2]=prec;
  av=avma; l = prec+1; p1=realun(l);

  code0 = evaltyp(t_REAL) | evallg(prec);
  *(BERN(0)) = code0; affsr(1,BERN(0));
  p2 = p1; av2=avma;
  for (i=1; i<=nb; i++)
  {
    if (i>1)
    {
      n=8; m=5; d = d1 = i-1; d2 = 2*i-3;
      for (j=d; j>0; j--)
      {
        p2 = BERN(j);
        if (j<d) p2 = addrr(p2,p1);
        else
        {
          affrr(p2,p1); p2=p1;
        }
        p2 = mulsr(n*m,p2); setlg(p2,l);
        p2 = divrs(p2, d1*d2); affrr(p2,p1);
        n+=4; m+=2; d1--; d2-=2;
      }
      p2 = addsr(1,p1); setlg(p2,l);
    }
    p2 = divrs(p2,2*i+1); p2 = subsr(1,p2);
    setexpo(p2, expo(p2) - 2*i);
    *(BERN(i)) = code0; affrr(p2,BERN(i)); avma=av2;
  }
  if (bernzone) gunclone(bernzone);
  avma = av; bernzone = B;
}
#undef BERN

GEN
bernreal(long n, long prec)
{
  GEN B;

  if (n==1) { B=cgetr(prec); affsr(-1,B); setexpo(B,-1); return B; }
  if (n<0 || n&1) return gzero;
  n >>= 1; mpbern(n+1,prec); B=cgetr(prec);
  affrr(bern(n),B); return B;
}

/* k > 0 */
static GEN
bernfracspec(long k)
{
  long n,av,lim, K = k+1;
  GEN s,c,N,h;

  c = N = stoi(K); s = gun; h = gzero;
  av = avma; lim = stack_lim(av,2);
  for (n=2; ; n++)
  {
    c = gdivgs(gmulgs(c,n-k-2),n);
    h = gadd(h, gdivgs(gmul(c,s), n));
    if (n==K) return gerepileupto(av,h);
    N[2] = n; s = addii(s, gpuigs(N,k));
    if (low_stack(lim, stack_lim(av,2)))
    {
      GEN *gptr[3]; gptr[0]=&c; gptr[1]=&h; gptr[2]=&s;
      if (DEBUGMEM>1) err(warnmem,"bernfrac");
      gerepilemany(av,gptr,3);
    }
  }
}

GEN
bernfrac(long k)
{
  if (!k) return gun;
  if (k==1) return gneg(ghalf);
  if (k<0 || k&1) return gzero;
  return bernfracspec(k);
}

static GEN
bernvec2(long k)
{
  GEN B = cgetg(k+2,t_VEC);
  ulong i;

  for (i=1; i<=k; i++)
    B[i+1]=(long)bernfracspec(i<<1);
  B[1]=un; return B;
}

/* mpbern as exact fractions */
GEN
bernvec(long nb)
{
  long n,m,i,j,d1,d2,av,tetpil;
  GEN  p1,y;

  if (nb < 300) return bernvec2(nb);

  y=cgetg(nb+2,t_VEC); y[1]=un;
  for (i=1; i<=nb; i++)
  {
    av=avma; p1=gzero;
    n=8; m=5; d1=i-1; d2=2*i-3;
    for (j=d1; j>0; j--)
    {
      p1 = gmulsg(n*m, gadd(p1,(GEN)y[j+1]));
      p1 = gdivgs(p1, d1*d2);
      n+=4; m+=2; d1--; d2-=2;
    }
    p1 = gsubsg(1,gdivgs(gaddsg(1,p1),2*i+1));
    tetpil=avma; p1 = gmul2n(p1,-2*i);
    y[i+1] = lpile(av,tetpil,p1);
  }
  return y;
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                      FONCTION GAMMA                            **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/

static GEN
mpgamma(GEN x)
{
  GEN y,p1,p2,p3,p4,p5,p6,p7,p71,pitemp;
  long l,l1,l2,u,i,k,e,s,sx,n,p,av,av1;
  double alpha,beta,dk;

  sx=signe(x); if (!sx) err(gamer2);
  l=lg(x); y=cgetr(l); av=avma;

  l2=l+1; p1=cgetr(l2);
  u = (expo(x)<-1 || sx<0);
  if (!u) p2 = x;
  else
  {
    p2=gfrac(x); if (gcmp0(p2)) err(gamer2);
    p2 = subsr(1,x);
  }
  affrr(p2,p1);
  alpha=rtodbl(p1); beta=((bit_accuracy(l)>>1)*LOG2/PI) - alpha;
  if (beta>=0) n=(long)(1 + pariK2*beta); else n=0;
  if (n)
  {
    p = (long)(1 + PI*(alpha+n));
    l2 += n>>TWOPOTBITS_IN_LONG;
    p2 = cgetr(l2); addsrz(n,p1,p2);
  }
  else
  {
    dk = pariK4*alpha/(l-2); beta = log(dk)/LOG2;
    if (beta>1.) beta += log(beta)/LOG2;
    p = (long)((bit_accuracy(l)>>1)/beta + 1);
    p2 = p1;
  }
  mpbern(p,l2); p3=mplog(p2);

  p4=realun(l2); setexpo(p4,-1);
  p6 = subrr(p2,p4); p6 = mulrr(p6,p3);
  p6 = subrr(p6,p2);
  pitemp = mppi(l2); setexpo(pitemp,2);
  p7 = mplog(pitemp); setexpo(pitemp,1);
  setexpo(p7,-1); addrrz(p6,p7,p4);

  affrr(ginv(gsqr(p2)), p3); e=expo(p3);

  p5=cgetr(l2); setlg(p5,4);
  p71=cgetr(l2); p7 = bern(p);
  if (bernzone[2]>4) { setlg(p71,4); affrr(p7,p71); p7=p71; }
  p7 = divrs(p7, 2*p*(2*p-1)); affrr(p7,p5);

  s=0; l1=4; av1=avma;
  for (k=p-1; k>0; k--)
  {
    setlg(p3,l1); p6 = mulrr(p3,p5); p7 = bern(k);
    if (bernzone[2]>l1) { setlg(p71,l1); affrr(p7,p71); p7=p71; }
    p7 = divrs(p7, (2*k)*(2*k-1));
    s -= e; l1 += (s>>TWOPOTBITS_IN_LONG); if (l1>l2) l1=l2;
    s &= (BITS_IN_LONG-1); p7 = addrr(p7,p6);
    setlg(p5,l1); affrr(p7,p5); avma=av1;
  }
  setlg(p5,l2); p6 = divrr(p5,p2);
  p4 = addrr(p4,p6); setlg(p4,l2); p4 = mpexp(p4);
  for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
  {
    addsrz(-1,p2,p2); p4 = divrr(p4,p2);
  }
  if (u)
  {
    setlg(pitemp,l+1); p1 = mulrr(pitemp,x);
    p4 = mulrr(mpsin(p1), p4); p4 = divrr(pitemp,p4);
  }
  affrr(p4,y); avma=av; return y;
}

static GEN
cxgamma(GEN x, long prec)
{
  GEN y,p1,p2,p3,p4,p5,p6,p7,p71,pitemp;
  long l,l1,l2,u,i,k,e,s,n,p,av,av1;
  double alpha,beta,dk;

  if (gcmp0((GEN)x[2])) return ggamma((GEN)x[1],prec);
  l = precision(x); if (!l) l = prec;
  l2 = l+1; y=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX);
  y[1]=lgetr(l); y[2]=lgetr(l); av=avma;

  p1=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX); p1[1]=lgetr(l2); p1[2]=lgetr(l2);
  u = (gsigne((GEN)x[1])<=0 || gexpo((GEN)x[1]) < -1);
  p2 = u? gsub(gun,x): x;
  gaffect(p2,p1);

  alpha=rtodbl(gabs(p1,DEFAULTPREC));
  beta = (bit_accuracy(l)>>1) * LOG2 / PI - alpha;
  if (beta>=0) n=(long)(1 + pariK2*beta); else n=0;
  if (n)
  {
    p = (long)(1+PI*(alpha+n));
    l2 += n>>TWOPOTBITS_IN_LONG;
    p2=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX); p2[1]=lgetr(l2); p2[2]=lgetr(l2);
    addsrz(n,(GEN)p1[1],(GEN)p2[1]);
    affrr((GEN)p1[2],(GEN)p2[2]);
  }
  else
  {
    dk = pariK4*alpha/(l-2); beta = log(dk)/LOG2;
    if (beta>1.) beta += log(beta)/LOG2;
    p = (long)((bit_accuracy(l)>>1)/beta + 1);
    p2 = p1;
  }
  mpbern(p,l2); p3 = glog(p2,l2);

  p4=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX);
  p4[1] = (long)realun(l2); setexpo(p4[1],-1);
  p4[2] = (long)rcopy((GEN)p2[2]);
  subrrz((GEN)p2[1],(GEN)p4[1],(GEN)p4[1]);
  gmulz(p4,p3,p4); gsubz(p4,p2,p4);

  pitemp = mppi(l2); setexpo(pitemp,2);
  p7 = mplog(pitemp); setexpo(pitemp,1);
  setexpo(p7,-1); addrrz((GEN)p4[1],p7, (GEN)p4[1]);

  gaffect(ginv(gsqr(p2)), p3); e=gexpo(p3);

  p5=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX);
  p5[1]=lgetr(l2); setlg(p5[1],4);
  p5[2]=lgetr(l2); setlg(p5[2],4);
  p71=cgetr(l2); p7 = bern(p);
  if (bernzone[2]>4) { setlg(p71,4); affrr(p7,p71); p7=p71; }
  p7 = divrs(p7, 2*p*(2*p-1)); gaffect(p7,p5);

  s=0; l1=4; av1=avma;
  for (k=p-1; k>0; k--)
  {
    setlg(p3[1],l1); setlg(p3[2],l1);
    p6 = gmul(p3,p5); p7 = bern(k);
    if (bernzone[2]>l1) { setlg(p71,l1); affrr(p7,p71); p7=p71; }
    p7 = divrs(p7, (2*k)*(2*k-1));
    s -= e; l1 += (s>>TWOPOTBITS_IN_LONG); if (l1>l2) l1=l2;
    s &= (BITS_IN_LONG-1); p7 = addrr(p7, (GEN)p6[1]);
    setlg(p5[1],l1); affrr(p7, (GEN)p5[1]); p7 = (GEN)p6[2];
    setlg(p5[2],l1); affrr(p7, (GEN)p5[2]); avma=av1;
  }
  setlg(p5[1],l2); setlg(p5[2],l2);
  p6 = gdiv(p5,p2); setlg(p6[1],l2); setlg(p6[2],l2);
  p4 = gadd(p4,p6); setlg(p4[1],l2); setlg(p4[2],l2);
  p4 = gexp(p4,l2);
  for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
  {
    addsrz(-1,(GEN)p2[1],(GEN)p2[1]); p4 = gdiv(p4,p2);
  }
  if (u)
  {
    setlg(pitemp,l+1); p1 = gmul(pitemp,x);
    p4 = gmul(gsin(p1,l+1), p4); p4 = gdiv(pitemp,p4);
  }
  gaffect(p4,y); avma=av; return y;
}

GEN
ggamma(GEN x, long prec)
{
  switch(typ(x))
  {
    case t_INT:
      if (signe(x)<=0) err(gamer2);
      return transc(ggamma,x,prec);

    case t_REAL:
      return mpgamma(x);

    case t_COMPLEX:
      return cxgamma(x,prec);

    case t_SER:
      return gexp(glngamma(x,prec),prec);

    case t_PADIC:
      err(impl,"p-adic gamma function");
    case t_INTMOD:
      err(typeer,"ggamma");
  }
  return transc(ggamma,x,prec);
}

void
ggammaz(GEN x, GEN y)
{
  long av=avma, prec = precision(y);

  if (!prec) err(infprecer,"ggammaz");
  gaffect(ggamma(x,prec),y); avma=av;
}

static GEN
mplngamma(GEN x)
{
  GEN z,y,p1,p2,p3,p4,p5,p6,p7,p71,pitemp;
  long l,l1,l2,u,i,k,e,f,s,sx,n,p,av,av1;
  double alpha,beta,dk;

  sx=signe(x); if (!sx) err(talker,"zero argument in mplngamma");
  z = cgetg(3, t_COMPLEX); l=lg(x); y=cgetr(l); av=avma;

  l2=l+1; p1=cgetr(l2);
  u = (expo(x)<-1 || sx<0);
  if (!u) p2 = x;
  else
  {
    p2=gfrac(x); if (gcmp0(p2)) err(gamer2);
    p2 = subsr(1,x);
  }
  affrr(p2,p1);
  if (expo(p1)>1000)
  {
    n=0; beta = log(pariK4/(l-2))/LOG2+expo(p1);
    beta += log(beta)/LOG2;
    p = (long)((bit_accuracy(l)>>1)/beta + 1);
    p2 = p1;
  }
  else
  {
    alpha=rtodbl(p1); beta = ((bit_accuracy(l)>>1) * LOG2 / PI) - alpha;
    if (beta>=0) n=(long)(1 + pariK2*beta); else n=0;
    if (n)
    {
      p=(long)(1+PI*(alpha+n));
      l2 += n>>TWOPOTBITS_IN_LONG;
      p2 = cgetr(l2); addsrz(n,p1,p2);
    }
    else
    {
      dk = pariK4*alpha/(l-2); beta = log(dk)/LOG2;
      if (beta>1.) beta += (log(beta)/LOG2);
      p = (long)((bit_accuracy(l)>>1)/beta + 1);
      p2 = p1;
    }
  }
  mpbern(p,l2); p3=mplog(p2);

  p4=realun(l2); setexpo(p4,-1);
  p6 = subrr(p2,p4); p6 = mulrr(p6,p3);
  p6 = subrr(p6,p2);
  pitemp = mppi(l2); setexpo(pitemp,2);
  p7 = mplog(pitemp); setexpo(pitemp,1);
  setexpo(p7,-1); addrrz(p6,p7,p4);

  affrr(ginv(gsqr(p2)), p3); e=expo(p3);

  p5=cgetr(l2); setlg(p5,4);
  p71=cgetr(l2); p7 = bern(p);
  if (bernzone[2]>4) { setlg(p71,4); affrr(p7,p71); p7=p71; }
  p7 = divrs(p7, 2*p*(2*p-1)); affrr(p7,p5);

  s=0; l1=4; av1=avma;
  for (k=p-1; k>0; k--)
  {
    setlg(p3,l1); p6 = mulrr(p3,p5); p7 = bern(k);
    if (bernzone[2]>l1) { setlg(p71,l1); affrr(p7,p71); p7=p71; }
    p7 = divrs(p7, (2*k)*(2*k-1));
    s -= e; l1 += (s>>TWOPOTBITS_IN_LONG); if (l1>l2) l1=l2;
    s &= (BITS_IN_LONG-1); p7 = addrr(p7,p6);
    setlg(p5,l1); affrr(p7,p5); avma=av1;
  }
  setlg(p5,l2); p6 = divrr(p5,p2);
  p4 = addrr(p4,p6); setlg(p4,l2);
  if (n)
  {
    for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
    {
      addsrz(-1,p2,p2); p7 = (i==1)? rcopy(p2): mulrr(p7,p2);
    }
    f=signe(p7); if (f<0) setsigne(p7,1);
    subrrz(p4,mplog(p7),p4);
  }
  else f=1;
  if (u)
  {
    setlg(pitemp,l+1); p1 = mulrr(pitemp,x);
    p1 = divrr(pitemp,mpsin(p1));
    if (signe(p1) < 0) { setsigne(p1,1); f = -f; }
    p4 = subrr(mplog(p1),p4);
  }
  if (f<0) /* t_COMPLEX result */
  {
    z[1] = (long)y; affrr(p4,y); avma = av;
    z[2] = (long)mppi(l); return z;
  }
  /* t_REAL result */
  y[3] = y[0]; y += 3;
  affrr(p4,y); avma = (long)y; return y;
}

static GEN
cxlngamma(GEN x, long prec)
{
  GEN y,p1,p2,p3,p4,p5,p6,p7,p71,pitemp;
  long l,l1,l2,flag,i,k,e,s,n,p,av,av1;
  double alpha,beta,dk;

  if (gcmp0((GEN)x[2])) return glngamma((GEN)x[1],prec);
  l = precision(x); if (!l) l = prec;
  l2 = l+1; y=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX);
  y[1]=lgetr(l); y[2]=lgetr(l); av=avma;

  p1=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX); p1[1]=lgetr(l2); p1[2]=lgetr(l2);

  flag = (typ(x[1]) != t_REAL || gsigne((GEN)x[1]) <= 0);
  if (!flag) flag = (gexpo((GEN)x[1]) < -1);
  if (flag && (gcmp0((GEN)x[2]) || gexpo((GEN)x[2]) > 16)) flag = 0;
  p2 = flag? gsub(gun,x): x;
  gaffect(p2,p1);

  p2=gabs(p1,DEFAULTPREC);
  if (expo(p2)>1000)
  {
    n=0; beta = log(pariK4/(l-2)) / LOG2 + expo(p1);
    beta += log(beta)/LOG2;
    p = (long)((bit_accuracy(l)>>1)/beta + 1);
    p2 = p1;
  }
  else
  {
    alpha=rtodbl(p2); beta = ((bit_accuracy(l)>>1) * LOG2 / PI) - alpha;
    if (beta>=0) n=(long)(1+pariK2*beta); else n=0;
    if (n)
    {
      p = (long)(1+PI*(alpha+n));
      l2 += n>>TWOPOTBITS_IN_LONG;
      p2=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX); p2[1]=lgetr(l2); p2[2]=lgetr(l2);
      addsrz(n,(GEN)p1[1],(GEN)p2[1]);
      affrr((GEN)p1[2],(GEN)p2[2]);
    }
    else
    {
      dk = pariK4*alpha/(l-2); beta = log(dk)/LOG2;
      if (beta>1.) beta += log(beta)/LOG2;
      p = (long)((bit_accuracy(l)>>1)/beta + 1);
      p2 = p1;
    }
  }
  mpbern(p,l2); p3 = glog(p2,l2);

  p4=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX);
  p4[1] = (long)realun(l2); setexpo(p4[1],-1);
  subrrz((GEN)p2[1],(GEN)p4[1],(GEN)p4[1]);
  p4[2] = (long)rcopy((GEN)p2[2]);
  gmulz(p4,p3,p4); gsubz(p4,p2,p4);

  pitemp = mppi(l2); setexpo(pitemp,2);
  p7 = mplog(pitemp); setexpo(pitemp,1);
  setexpo(p7,-1); addrrz((GEN)p4[1],p7, (GEN)p4[1]);

  gaffect(ginv(gsqr(p2)),p3); e=gexpo(p3);

  p5=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX);
  p5[1]=lgetr(l2); setlg(p5[1],4);
  p5[2]=lgetr(l2); setlg(p5[2],4);
  p71=cgetr(l2); p7 = bern(p);
  if (bernzone[2]>4) { setlg(p71,4); affrr(p7,p71); p7=p71; }
  p7 = divrs(p7, 2*p*(2*p-1)); gaffect(p7,p5);

  s=0; l1=4; av1=avma;
  for (k=p-1; k>0; k--)
  {
    setlg(p3[1],l1); setlg(p3[2],l1);
    p6 = gmul(p3,p5); p7 = bern(k);
    if (bernzone[2]>l1) { setlg(p71,l1); affrr(p7,p71); p7=p71; }
    p7 = divrs(p7, (2*k)*(2*k-1));
    s -= e; l1 += (s>>TWOPOTBITS_IN_LONG); if (l1>l2) l1=l2;
    s &= (BITS_IN_LONG-1); p7 = addrr(p7, (GEN)p6[1]);
    setlg(p5[1],l1); affrr(p7, (GEN)p5[1]); p7 = (GEN)p6[2];
    setlg(p5[2],l1); affrr(p7, (GEN)p5[2]); avma=av1;
  }
  setlg(p5[1],l2); setlg(p5[2],l2);
  p6 = gdiv(p5,p2); setlg(p6[1],l2); setlg(p6[2],l2);
  p4 = gadd(p4,p6); setlg(p4[1],l2); setlg(p4[2],l2);

  if (n)
  {
    p7 = cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX); p7[2] = p2[2];
    for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
    {
      addsrz(-1,(GEN)p2[1], (GEN)p2[1]);
      if (i==1) p7[1] = lrcopy((GEN)p2[1]); else p7 = gmul(p7,p2);
    }
    gsubz(p4,glog(p7,l+1), p4);
  }
  if (flag)
  {
    setlg(pitemp,l+1); p1 = gmul(pitemp,x);
    p1 = gdiv(pitemp,gsin(p1,l+1));
    p4 = gsub(glog(p1,l+1),p4);
  }
  affrr((GEN)p4[1], (GEN)y[1]); setlg(p4[2],l+1);

  p1 = subrr(pitemp, (GEN)p4[2]); setexpo(pitemp,2);
  p1 = gfloor(divrr(p1,pitemp));
  p1 = addrr(mulir(p1,pitemp), (GEN)p4[2]);
  affrr(p1, (GEN)y[2]); avma=av; return y;
}

GEN
glngamma(GEN x, long prec)
{
  long i,av,n;
  GEN y,p1;

  switch(typ(x))
  {
    case t_INT:
      if (signe(x)<=0) err(gamer2);
      return transc(glngamma,x,prec);

    case t_REAL:
      return mplngamma(x);

    case t_COMPLEX:
      return cxlngamma(x,prec);

    case t_SER:
      if (valp(x)) err(negexper,"glngamma");
      av = avma; p1 = gsubsg(1,x);
      if (!valp(p1)) err(impl,"lngamma around a!=1");
      n = (lg(x)-3)/valp(p1);
      y = ggrando(polx[varn(x)],lg(x)-2);
      for (i=n; i>=2; i--)
      y = gmul(p1,gadd(gdivgs(gzeta(stoi(i),prec),i),y));
      y = gadd(mpeuler(prec),y);
      return gerepileupto(av, gmul(p1,y));

    case t_PADIC:
      err(impl,"p-adic lngamma function");
    case t_INTMOD:
      err(typeer,"glngamma");
  }
  return transc(glngamma,x,prec);
}

void
glngammaz(GEN x, GEN y)
{
  long av=avma, prec = precision(y);

  if (!prec) err(infprecer,"glngammaz");
  gaffect(glngamma(x,prec),y); avma=av;
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**             FONCTION GAMMA DES DEMI-ENTIERS                    **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/

static GEN
mpgamd(long x, long prec)
{
  long i,j,a,l,av;
  GEN y,p1,p2;

  a = labs(x);
  l = prec+1+(a>>TWOPOTBITS_IN_LONG);
  if (l > LGBITS>>1) err(talker,"argument too large in ggamd");
  y=cgetr(prec); av=avma;

  p1 = mpsqrt(mppi(l));
  j = 1; p2 = realun(l);
  for (i=1; i<a; i++)
  {
    j += 2;
    p2 = mulsr(j,p2); setlg(p2,l);
  }
  if (x>=0) p1 = mulrr(p1,p2);
  else
  {
    p1 = divrr(p1,p2); if (a&1) setsigne(p1,-1);
  }
  setexpo(p1, expo(p1)-x);
  affrr(p1,y); avma=av; return y;
}

void
mpgamdz(long s, GEN y)
{
  long av=avma;

  affrr(mpgamd(s,lg(y)),y); avma=av;
}

GEN
ggamd(GEN x, long prec)
{
  long av,tetpil;

  switch(typ(x))
  {
    case t_INT:
      return mpgamd(itos(x),prec);

    case t_REAL: case t_FRAC: case t_FRACN: case t_COMPLEX: case t_QUAD:
      av=avma; x = gadd(x,ghalf); tetpil=avma;
      return gerepile(av,tetpil,ggamma(x,prec));

    case t_INTMOD: case t_PADIC:
      err(typeer,"ggamd");
    case t_SER:
      err(impl,"gamd of a power series");
  }
  return transc(ggamd,x,prec);
}

void
ggamdz(GEN x, GEN y)
{
  long av=avma, prec = precision(y);

  if (!prec) err(infprecer,"ggamdz");
  gaffect(ggamd(x,prec),y); avma=av;
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                      FONCTION PSI                              **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/

#if 1
static GEN
mppsi(GEN z)  /* version p=2 */
{
  long l,n,k,x,xx,av,av1,tetpil;
  GEN zk,u,v,a,b;

  av=avma; l=lg(z);
  x=(long)(1 + (bit_accuracy(l)>>1)*LOG2 + 1.58*rtodbl(absr(z)));
  if (expo(z)>=15 || x>46340) err(impl,"psi(x) for x>=29000");
  xx=x*x; n=(long)(1+3.591*x);
  affsr(x,a=cgetr(l));
  a = mplog(a);
  gaffect(a,u=cgetr(l));
  gaffsg(1,b=cgetr(l));
  gaffsg(1,v=cgetr(l)); av1=avma;
  for (k=1; k<=n; k++)
  {
    zk = (k>1)? addsr(k-1,z): z;
    divrrz(mulsr(xx,b),gsqr(zk),b);
    divrrz(subrr(divrr(mulsr(xx,a),zk),b),zk,a);
    addrrz(u,a,u); addrrz(v,b,v); avma=av1;
  }
  tetpil=avma; return gerepile(av,tetpil,divrr(u,v));
}
#else
static GEN /* by Manfred Radimersky */
mppsi(GEN z)
{
  long head, tail;
  long len, num, k;
  GEN a, b, f, s, x;

  head = avma;
  len = lg(z);
  num = bit_accuracy(len);

  if(signe(z) < 0) {
    x = subsr(1, z);
    s = mppsi(x);
    f = mulrr(mppi(len), z);
    mpsincos(f, &a, &b);
    f = divrr(b, a);
    a = mulrr(mppi(len), f);
    tail = avma;
    gerepile(head, tail, subrr(s, a));
  }

  a = cgetr(len);
  affsr(0, a);
  x = cgetr(len);
  affrr(z, x);
  tail = avma;
  while(cmprs(x, num >> 2) < 0) {
    gaddz(a, divsr(1, x), a);
    gaddgsz(x, 1, x);
    avma = tail;
  }

  s = mplog(x);
  gsubz(s, a, s);
  b = gmul2n(x, 1);
  gsubz(s, divsr(1, b), s);

  mpbern(num, len);

  affsr(-1, a);
  gdivgsz(a, 2, a);
  f = mulrr(x, x);
  f = divsr(1, f);
  k = 1;
  do {
    gmulz(a, f, a);
    gdivgsz(a, k, b);
    gmulz(b, bern(k), b);
    gaddz(s, b, s);
    k++;
  } while(expo(s) - expo(b) < num);

  tail = avma;
  return gerepile(head, tail, gcopy(s));
}
#endif

#if 1
static GEN
cxpsi(GEN z, long prec) /* version p=2 */
{
  long l,n,k,x,xx,av,av1,tetpil;
  GEN zk,u,v,a,b,p1;

  if (gcmp0((GEN)z[2])) return gpsi((GEN)z[1],prec);
  l = precision(z); if (!l) l = prec; av=avma;
  x=(long)(1 + (bit_accuracy(l)>>1)*LOG2 + 1.58*rtodbl(gabs(z,DEFAULTPREC)));
  xx=x*x; n=(long)(1+3.591*x);
  a=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX); a[1]=lgetr(l); a[2]=lgetr(l); gaffsg(x,a);
  b=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX); b[1]=lgetr(l); b[2]=lgetr(l); gaffsg(1,b);
  u=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX); u[1]=lgetr(l); u[2]=lgetr(l);
  v=cgetg(3,t_COMPLEX); v[1]=lgetr(l); v[2]=lgetr(l); gaffsg(1,v);
  p1=glog(a,l); gaffect(p1,a); gaffect(p1,u); av1=avma;
  for (k=1; k<=n; k++)
  {
    zk=(k>1) ? gaddsg(k-1,z) : z;
    gdivz(gmulsg(xx,b),gsqr(zk),b);
    gdivz(gsub(gdiv(gmulsg(xx,a),zk),b),zk,a);
    gaddz(u,a,u); gaddz(v,b,v); avma=av1;
  }
  tetpil=avma; return gerepile(av,tetpil,gdiv(u,v));
}
#else
GEN
cxpsi(GEN z, long prec) /* by Manfred Radimersky */
{
  long head, tail;
  long bord, nubi, k;
  GEN a, b, f, s, w, wn;

  if (gcmp0((GEN)z[2])) return gpsi((GEN)z[1],prec);
  head = avma;
  nubi = bit_accuracy(prec);
  bord = (nubi * nubi) >> 4;

  if(signe((GEN) z[1]) < 0) {
    w = gsubsg(1, z);
    s = cxpsi(w, prec);
    f = gmul(mppi(prec), z);
    gsincos(f, &a, &b, prec);
    f = gdiv(b, a);
    a = gmul(mppi(prec), f);
    tail = avma;
    gerepile(head, tail, gsub(s, a));
  }

  a = cgetg(3, t_COMPLEX);
  a[1] = (long) cgetr(prec);
  a[2] = (long) cgetr(prec);
  gaffsg(0, a);
  w = cgetg(3, t_COMPLEX);
  w[1] = (long) cgetr(prec);
  w[2] = (long) cgetr(prec);
  gaffect(z, w);
  wn = gnorm(w);
  tail = avma;
  while(cmprs(wn, bord) < 0) {
    gaddz(a, gdivsg(1, w), a);
    gaddgsz((GEN) w[1], 1, (GEN) w[1]);
    gaffect(gnorm(w), wn);
    avma = tail;
  }

  s = glog(w, prec);
  gsubz(s, a, s);
  b = gmul2n(w, 1);
  gsubz(s, gdivsg(1, b), s);

  mpbern(nubi, prec);

  gaffsg(-1, a);
  gdivgsz(a, 2, a);
  f = gmul(w, w);
  f = gdivsg(1, f);
  k = 1;
  tail = avma;
  do {
    gmulz(a, f, a);
    gdivgsz(a, k, b);
    gmulz(b, bern(k), b);
    gaddz(s, b, s);
    bord = expo(gnorm(s)) - expo(gnorm(b));
    k++;   
    avma = tail;
  } while(bord < nubi << 1);

  tail = avma;
  return gerepile(head, tail, gcopy(s));
}
#endif

GEN
gpsi(GEN x, long prec)
{
  switch(typ(x))
  {
    case t_REAL:
      return mppsi(x);

    case t_COMPLEX:
      return cxpsi(x,prec);

    case t_INTMOD: case t_PADIC:
      err(typeer,"gpsi");
    case t_SER:
      err(impl,"psi of power series");
  }
  return transc(gpsi,x,prec);
}

void
gpsiz(GEN x, GEN y)
{
  long av=avma, prec = precision(y);

  if (!prec) err(infprecer,"gpsiz");
  gaffect(gpsi(x,prec),y); avma=av;
}

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