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es.c

/* $Id: es.c,v 1.40.2.10 2002/06/23 12:49:48 karim Exp $

Copyright (C) 2000  The PARI group.

This file is part of the PARI/GP package.

PARI/GP is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
Foundation. It is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
ANY WARRANTY WHATSOEVER.

Check the License for details. You should have received a copy of it, along
with the package; see the file 'COPYING'. If not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA. */

/*******************************************************************/
/**                                                               **/
/**                 INPUT/OUTPUT SUBROUTINES                      **/
/**                                                               **/
/*******************************************************************/
#include "pari.h"
#include "anal.h"
extern GEN confrac(GEN x); /* should be static here, but use hiremainder */
extern GEN convi(GEN x);
static void bruti(GEN g, long n);
static void texi(GEN g, long nosign);
static void sori(GEN g);
char * type_name(long t);
static char format;
static long decimals, chmp, initial;

/* output a space or do nothing depending on original caller */
static void (*sp)();

void
hit_return()
{
  char tmp[16];
  if (under_texmacs || under_emacs) return;
  pariputs("---- (type return to continue) ----");
  do fgets(tmp,16,stdin); while (tmp[strlen(tmp)-1] != '\n');
  pariputc('\n');
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                        INPUT FILTER                            **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/

#define ONE_LINE_COMMENT   2
#define MULTI_LINE_COMMENT 1
/* filter s in place. If status not a query, return pointer to ending '\0'.
 * return s / NULL otherwise
 */
char *
filtre(char *s, int status)
{
  static int in_string, in_comment = 0;
  char c, *t;
  int downcase;

  if (status & f_INIT) in_string = 0;
  switch(status)
  {
    case f_ENDFILE:
      if (in_string)
      {
        err(warner,"run-away string. Closing it");
        in_string = 0;
      }
      if (in_comment)
      {
        err(warner,"run-away comment. Closing it");
        in_comment = 0;
      } /* fall through */
    case f_INIT: case f_COMMENT:
      return in_comment? s: NULL;
  }
  downcase = ((status & f_KEEPCASE) == 0 && compatible == OLDALL);
  t = s;
  while ((c = *s++))
  {
    if (in_string) *t++ = c; /* copy verbatim */
    else if (in_comment)
    {
      if (in_comment == MULTI_LINE_COMMENT)
      {
        while (c != '*' || *s != '/')
        {
          if (!*s) { *t=0; return t; }
          c = *s++;
        }
        s++;
      }
      else
        while (c != '\n')
        {
          if (!*s)
          {
            if (status == f_READL) in_comment=0;
            *t=0; return t;
          }
          c = *s++;
        }
      in_comment=0; continue;
    }
    else
    { /* weed out comments and spaces */
      if (c=='\\' && *s=='\\') { in_comment = ONE_LINE_COMMENT; continue; }
      if (isspace((int)c)) continue;
      *t++ = downcase? tolower(c): c;
    }
    switch(c)
    {
      case '/':
        if (*s != '*' || in_string) break;
        /* start multi-line comment */
        t--; in_comment = MULTI_LINE_COMMENT; break;

      case '\\':
        if (!in_string) break;
        if (!*s) return t;     /* this will result in an error */
        *t++ = *s++; break; /* in strings, \ is the escape character */
        /*  \" does not end a string. But \\" does */

      case '"':
        in_string = !in_string;
    }
  }
  *t = 0; return t;
}
#undef ONE_LINE_COMMENT
#undef MULTI_LINE_COMMENT

GEN
lisGEN(FILE *fi)
{ 
  long size = 512, n = size;
  char *buf = gpmalloc(n), *s = buf;
  
  while (fgets(s, n, fi))
  {
    if (s[strlen(s)-1] == '\n')
    {
      GEN x = flisexpr(buf);
      free(buf); return x;
    }
    buf = gprealloc(buf, size<<1, size);
    s = buf + (size-1); n = size+1; size <<= 1;
  }
#if defined(UNIX) || defined(__EMX__)
  if (!feof(fi))
#endif 
    err(talker, "failed read from file");
  return NULL;
} 

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                  GENERAL PURPOSE PRINTING                      **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/
PariOUT *pariOut, *pariErr;

static void
normalOutC(char c)
{
  putc(c, pari_outfile);
  if (logfile) putc(c, logfile);
}
static void
normalOutS(char *s)
{
  fputs(s, pari_outfile);
  if (logfile) { fputs(s, logfile); }
}
static void
normalOutF(void)
{
  fflush(pari_outfile);
  if (logfile) fflush(logfile);
}
PariOUT defaultOut = {normalOutC, normalOutS, normalOutF, NULL};

static void
normalErrC(char c)
{
  putc(c, errfile);
  if (logfile) putc(c, logfile);
}
static void
normalErrS(char *s)
{
  fputs(s, errfile);
  if (logfile) fputs(s, logfile);
}
static void
normalErrF(void)
{
  fflush(errfile);
  if (logfile) fflush(logfile);
}
PariOUT defaultErr = {normalErrC, normalErrS, normalErrF, NULL};

/**                         GENERIC PRINTING                       **/
void
initout(int initerr)
{
  infile = stdin; pari_outfile = stdout; errfile = stderr;
  pariOut = &defaultOut;
  if (initerr) pariErr = &defaultErr;
}

void
pariputc(char c) { pariOut->putch(c); }

void
pariputs(char *s) { pariOut->puts(s); }

void
pariflush(void) { pariOut->flush(); }

void
flusherr(void) { pariErr->flush(); }

/* format is standard printf format, except %Z is a GEN */
void
vpariputs(char* format, va_list args)
{
  long nb = 0, bufsize = 1023;
  char *buf, *str, *s, *f = format;
  
  /* replace each %Z (2 chars) by braced address format (8 chars) */
  s = str = gpmalloc(strlen(format)*4 + 1);
  while (*f)
  {
    if (*f != '%') *s++ = *f++;
    else
    {
      if (f[1] != 'Z') { *s++ = *f++; *s++ = *f++; }
      else
      {
        strcpy(s,"\003%020ld\003"); /* brace with unprobable characters */
        nb++; s += 8; f += 2; /* skip %Z */
      }
    }
  }
  *s = 0;
#ifdef HAS_VSNPRINTF
  for(;;)
  {
    int l;
    buf = gpmalloc(bufsize);
    l = vsnprintf(buf,bufsize,str,args);
    if (l < 0) l = bufsize<<1; else if (l < bufsize) break;
    free(buf); bufsize++;
  }
  buf[bufsize] = 0; /* just in case */
#else
  buf = gpmalloc(bufsize);
  (void)vsprintf(buf,str,args); /* pray it does fit */
#endif
  f = s = buf;
  if (nb)
    while ( *f )
    {
      if (*f == '\003' && f[21] == '\003')
      {
        *f = 0; f[21] = 0; /* remove the bracing chars */
        pariOut->puts(s); bruteall((GEN)atol(f+1),'g',-1,1);
        f += 22; s = f;
        if (!--nb) break; 
      }
      else
        f++;
    }
  pariOut->puts(s); free(buf); free(str);
}

void
pariputsf(char *format, ...)
{
  va_list args;

  va_start(args,format); vpariputs(format,args);
  va_end(args);
}

/* start printing in "color" c */
/* terminal has to support ANSI color escape sequences */
#ifdef ESC
#  undef ESC
#endif
#define ESC  (0x1f & '[') /* C-[ = escape */

void
term_color(int c)
{
  pariputs(term_get_color(c));
}

void
decode_color(int n, int *c)
{
  c[1] = n & 0xf; n >>= 4; /* foreground */
  c[2] = n & 0xf; n >>= 4; /* background */
  c[0] = n & 0xf; /* attribute */
}

char *
term_get_color(int n)
{
  static char s[16];
  int c[3], a;

  if (disable_color) return "";
  if (n == c_NONE || (a = gp_colors[n]) == c_NONE)
    sprintf(s, "%c[0m",ESC); /* reset */
  else
  {
    decode_color(a,c);
    if (c[1]<8) c[1] += 30; else c[1] += 82;
    if (a & (1<<12)) /* transparent background */
      sprintf(s, "%c[%d;%dm", ESC, c[0], c[1]);
    else
    {
      if (c[2]<8) c[2] += 40; else c[2] += 92;
      sprintf(s, "%c[%d;%d;%dm", ESC, c[0], c[1], c[2]);
    }
  }
  return s;
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                  PRINTING BASED ON SCREEN WIDTH                **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/
static int col_index, lin_index, max_width, max_lin;
void init_lim_lines(char *s, long max);
#ifdef HAS_TIOCGWINSZ
#  include <sys/termios.h>
#  include <sys/ioctl.h>
#endif

static int
term_width_intern()
{
#ifdef HAS_TIOCGWINSZ
  {
    struct winsize s;
    if (!under_emacs && !under_texmacs && !ioctl(0, TIOCGWINSZ, &s))
      return s.ws_col;
  }
#endif
#ifdef UNIX
  {
    char *str;
    if ((str = getenv("COLUMNS"))) return atoi(str);
  }
#endif
#ifdef __EMX__
  {
    int scrsize[2];
    _scrsize(scrsize); return scrsize[0];
  }
#endif
  return 0;
}

static int
term_height_intern()
{
#ifdef HAS_TIOCGWINSZ
  {
    struct winsize s;
    if (!under_emacs && !under_texmacs && !ioctl(0, TIOCGWINSZ, &s))
      return s.ws_row;
  }
#endif
#ifdef UNIX
  {
    char *str;
    if ((str = getenv("LINES"))) return atoi(str);
  }
#endif
#ifdef __EMX__
  {
    int scrsize[2];
    _scrsize(scrsize); return scrsize[1];
  }
#endif
  return 0;
}

#define DFT_TERM_WIDTH  80
#define DFT_TERM_HEIGHT 20

int
term_width()
{
  int n = term_width_intern();
  return (n>1)? n: DFT_TERM_WIDTH;
}

int
term_height()
{
  int n = term_height_intern();
  return (n>1)? n: DFT_TERM_HEIGHT;
}

#define MAX_WIDTH 76
/* output string wrapped after MAX_WIDTH characters (for gp -test) */
static void
putc80(char c)
{
  if (c == '\n') col_index = -1;
  else if (col_index == MAX_WIDTH)
    { putc('\n',pari_outfile); col_index = 0; }
  putc(c, pari_outfile); col_index++;
}
#undef MAX_WIDTH
static void
puts80(char *s)
{
  while (*s) putc80(*s++);
}
PariOUT pariOut80= {putc80, puts80, normalOutF, NULL};

void
init80(long n)
{
  col_index = n; pariOut = &pariOut80;
}

/* output stopped after max_line have been printed (for default(lines,)) */
static void
putc_lim_lines(char c)
{
  if (lin_index > max_lin) return;
  if (lin_index == max_lin)
    if (c == '\n' || col_index >= max_width-5)
    {
      normalOutS(term_get_color(c_ERR));
      normalOutS("[+++]"); lin_index++; return;
    }
  if (c == '\n')
  {
    col_index = -1; lin_index++;
  }
  else if (col_index == max_width)
  {
    col_index =  0; lin_index++;
  }
  col_index++; normalOutC(c);
}
static void
puts_lim_lines(char *s)
{
  long i,len;
  if (lin_index > max_lin) return;
  len = strlen(s);
  for(i=0; i<len; i++) putc_lim_lines(s[i]);
}

PariOUT pariOut_lim_lines= {putc_lim_lines, puts_lim_lines, normalOutF, NULL};

/* s = prefix already printed (print up to max lines) */
void
init_lim_lines(char *s, long max)
{
  if (!max) return;
  if (!s) { pariOut = &defaultOut; return; }
  max_width = term_width();
  max_lin = max;
  lin_index = 1; col_index = strlen(s);
  pariOut = &pariOut_lim_lines;
}

#define is_blank_or_null(c) (!(c) || is_blank(c))
#define is_blank(c) ((c) == ' ' || (c) == '\n')
#define MAX_WORD_LEN 255

static void
_new_line(char *prefix)
{
  pariputc('\n'); if (prefix) pariputs(prefix);
}

static long
strlen_real(char *s)
{
  char *t = s, *t0;
  long ctrl_len = 0;
  while (*t)
  {
    t0 = t;
    if (*t++ == ESC && *t++ == '[')
    {
      while (*t && *t++ != 'm') /* empty */;
      ctrl_len += t - t0;
    }
  }
  return strlen(s) - ctrl_len;
}

/* output: <prefix>< s wrapped at EOL >
 *         <prefix>< ... > <str>
 *                         ^---
 * If str is NULL, omit the arrow and assume the text doesn't contain ASCII
 * escape sequences. If prefix is NULL, use ""
 */
void
print_prefixed_text(char *s, char *prefix, char *str)
{
  long prelen = prefix? strlen_real(prefix): 0;
  long oldwlen=0, linelen=prelen, w = term_width();
  char word[MAX_WORD_LEN+1], oldword[MAX_WORD_LEN+1], *u=word;

  if (prefix) pariputs(prefix);
  oldword[0]='\0';
  while ((*u++ = *s++))
  {
    if (is_blank_or_null(*s))
    {
      while (is_blank(*s)) s++;
      linelen += oldwlen;
      if (linelen >= w)
      {
        _new_line(prefix);
        linelen = oldwlen + prelen;
      }
      pariputs(oldword); *u++ = ' '; *u = 0;
      /* u-word = strlen(word) */
      oldwlen = str ? strlen_real(word): u - word;
      if (*s) { strcpy(oldword,word);  u = word; }
    }
  }
  if (!str)
  { /* add final period if needed */
    u--; while (u > word && is_blank_or_null(*u)) u--;
    if (u >= word && *u != '.') { u[1] = '.'; u[2] = 0; }
  }
  else
    { *(u-2) = 0; oldwlen--; }
  linelen += oldwlen;
  if (linelen >= w) { _new_line(prefix); linelen = prelen + oldwlen; }
  pariputs(word);
  if (str)
  {
    long i,len = strlen_real(str);
    int space = (*str == ' ' && str[1]);
    if (linelen + len >= w)
    {
      _new_line(prefix); linelen = prelen;
      if (space) { str++; len--; space = 0; }
    }
    term_color(c_OUTPUT);
    pariputs(str); if (!len || str[len-1] != '\n') pariputc('\n');
    if (space) { linelen++; len--; }
    term_color(c_ERR);
    for (i=0; i<linelen; i++) pariputc(' ');
    pariputc('^');
    for (i=0; i<len; i++) pariputc('-');
  }
  pariputc('\n');
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                    GEN <---> CHARACTER STRINGS                 **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/

00577 typedef struct outString {
  char *string;
  ulong len,size;
} outString;
static outString *OutStr, *ErrStr = NULL;

#define STEPSIZE 1024
#define check_output_length(str,l) { \
  const ulong s = str->size; \
  if (str->len + l >= s) { \
    ulong t = s + l + STEPSIZE; \
    str->string = gprealloc(str->string, t, s); \
    str->size = t; \
  } \
}

#define str_putc(str, c) { \
  check_output_length(str,1); \
  str->string[str->len++] = c; \
}
static void
outstr_putc(char c) { str_putc(OutStr, c); }
static void
errstr_putc(char c) { str_putc(ErrStr, c); }

#define str_puts(str, s) {\
  const long len=strlen(s); \
  check_output_length(str,len); \
  strcpy(str->string+str->len,s); \
  str->len += len; \
}
static void
outstr_puts(char *s) { str_puts(OutStr, s); }
static void
errstr_puts(char *s) { str_puts(ErrStr, s); }

static void
outstr_flush(void) { /* empty */ }
PariOUT pariOut2Str = {outstr_putc, outstr_puts, outstr_flush, NULL};
PariOUT pariErr2Str = {errstr_putc, errstr_puts, outstr_flush, NULL};
#undef STEPSIZE

char *
pari_strdup(char *s)
{
  int n = strlen(s)+1;
  char *t = gpmalloc(n);
  memcpy(t,s,n); return t;
}

/* returns a malloc-ed string, which should be freed after usage */
char *
GENtostr0(GEN x, void(*do_out)(GEN))
{
  PariOUT *tmp = pariOut;
  outString *tmps = OutStr, newStr;

  if (typ(x) == t_STR) return pari_strdup(GSTR(x));
  pariOut = &pariOut2Str; OutStr = &newStr;
  OutStr->len = 0; OutStr->size=0; OutStr->string=NULL;
  do_out(x); OutStr->string[OutStr->len] = 0;

  pariOut = tmp; OutStr = tmps; return newStr.string;
}

char *
GENtostr(GEN x) { return GENtostr0(x,outbrute); }

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                         WRITE AN INTEGER                       **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/
#define putsigne(x) pariputs((x>0)? " + " : " - ")
#define sp_sign_sp(x) sp(), pariputc(x>0? '+': '-'), sp()
#define sp_plus_sp() sp(), pariputc('+'), sp()
#define comma_sp() pariputc(','), sp()

static void wr_space() {pariputc(' ');}
static void no_space() {}

static void
blancs(long nb) { while (nb-- > 0) pariputc(' '); }

static void
zeros(long nb)  { while (nb-- > 0) pariputc('0'); }

static long
coinit(long x)
{
  char cha[10], *p = cha + 9;

  *p = 0;
  do { *--p = x%10 + '0'; x /= 10; } while (x);
  pariputs(p); return 9 - (p - cha);
}

/* as above, printing leading 0s, return # significant digits printed */
static long
coinit2(long x)
{
  char cha[10], *p = cha + 9;
  int i = 0;

  for (*p = 0; p > cha; x /= 10) *--p = x%10 + '0';
  while (cha[i] == '0') i++;
  pariputs(cha); return 9 - i;
}


static void
comilieu(long x)
{
  char cha[10], *p = cha + 9;

  for (*p = 0; p > cha; x /= 10) *--p = x%10 + '0';
  pariputs(cha);
}

static void
cofin(long x, long decim)
{
  char cha[10], *p = cha + 9;

  for (; p > cha; x /= 10) *--p = x%10 + '0';
  cha[decim] = 0; pariputs(cha);
}

static long
nbdch(long l)
{
  if (l<100000)
  {
    if (l<10) return 1;
    if (l<100) return 2;
    if (l<1000) return 3;
    if (l<10000) return 4;
    return 5;
  }
  if (l<1000000) return 6;
  if (l<10000000) return 7;
  if (l<100000000) return 8;
  if (l<1000000000) return 9;
  return 10; /* not reached */
}

/* write an int. fw = field width (pad with ' ') */
static void
wr_int(GEN x, long fw, long nosign)
{
  long *res,*re,i, sx=signe(x);

  if (!sx) { blancs(fw-1); pariputc('0'); return; }
  setsigne(x,1); re = res = convi(x);
  setsigne(x,sx);
  i = nbdch(*--re); while (*--re >= 0) i+=9;
  if (nosign || sx>0) blancs(fw-i);
  else
     { i++; blancs(fw-i); pariputc('-'); }
  coinit(*--res); while (*--res >= 0) comilieu(*res);
}

static void
wr_vecsmall(GEN g)
{
  long i,l;
  pariputc('['); l = lg(g);
  for (i=1; i<l; i++)
  {
    pariputsf("%ld", g[i]);
    if (i<l-1) comma_sp();
  }
  pariputc(']');
}
/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                        WRITE A REAL NUMBER                     **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/
static void wr_exp(GEN x);

/* assume x != 0 and print |x| in floating point format */
static void
wr_float(GEN x)
{
  long *res, ex,s,d,e,decmax, dec = decimals;
  GEN p1;

  if (dec>0) /* round if needed */
  {
    GEN arrondi = cgetr(3);
    arrondi[1] = (long) (x[1]-((double)BITS_IN_LONG/pariK)*dec-2);
    arrondi[2] = x[2]; x = addrr(x,arrondi);
  }
  ex = expo(x); e = bit_accuracy(lg(x)); /* significant bits */
  if (ex >= e) { wr_exp(x); return; }
  decmax = (long) (e * L2SL10); /* significant digits */
  if (decmax < (ulong)dec) dec = decmax; /* Hack: includes dec < 0 */

/* integer part */
  p1 = gcvtoi(x,&e); s = signe(p1);
  if (e > 0) err(bugparier,"wr_float");
  if (!s) { pariputc('0'); d=0; }
  else
  {
    x = subri(x,p1); setsigne(p1,1);
    res = convi(p1); d = coinit(*--res);
    while (*(--res) >= 0) { d += 9; comilieu(*res); }
  }
  pariputc('.');

/* fractional part: 0 < x < 1 */
  if (!signe(x))
  {
    dec -= d; if (dec>0) zeros(dec);
    return;
  }

  res = confrac(x);
  if (!s)
  {
    while (!*res) { res++; pariputs("000000000"); }
    d = coinit2(*res++);
  }

  /* d = # significant digits already printed */
  dec -= d;
  while (dec>8) { comilieu(*res++); dec -= 9; }
  if (dec>0) cofin(*res,dec);
}

/* as above in exponential format */
static void
wr_exp(GEN x)
{
  GEN dix = cgetr(lg(x)+1);
  long ex = expo(x);

  ex = (ex>=0)? (long)(ex*L2SL10): (long)(-(-ex*L2SL10)-1);
  affsr(10,dix); if (ex) x = mulrr(x,gpuigs(dix,-ex));
  if (absr_cmp(x, dix) >= 0) { x=divrr(x,dix); ex++; }
  wr_float(x); sp(); pariputsf("E%ld",ex);
}

/* Write real number x.
 * format: e (exponential), f (floating point), g (as f unless x too small)
 *   if format isn't correct (one of the above) act as e.
 * decimals: number of decimals to print (all if <0).
 */
static void
wr_real(GEN x, long nosign)
{
  long ltop, sx = signe(x), ex = expo(x);

  if (!sx) /* real 0 */
  {
    if (format == 'f')
    {
      if (decimals<0)
      {
        long d = 1+((-ex)>>TWOPOTBITS_IN_LONG);
        if (d < 0) d = 0;
        decimals=(long)(pariK*d);
      }
      pariputs("0."); zeros(decimals);
    }
    else
    {
      ex = (ex>=0)? (long)(ex*L2SL10): (long)(-(-ex*L2SL10)-1);
      pariputsf("0.E%ld", ex+1);
    }
    return;
  }
  if (!nosign && sx < 0) pariputc('-'); /* print sign if needed */
  ltop = avma;
  if ((format == 'g' && ex>=-32) || format == 'f') wr_float(x); else wr_exp(x);
  avma = ltop;
}

void
ecrire(GEN x, char f, long d, long fw)
{
  if (typ(x)==t_INT)
    wr_int(x,fw,0);
  else
  {
    sp = &wr_space; format = f; decimals = d;
    wr_real(x,0);
  }
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                       HEXADECIMAL OUTPUT                       **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/

static void
sorstring(char* b, long x)
{
#ifdef LONG_IS_64BIT
  pariputsf(b,(ulong)x>>32,x & MAXHALFULONG);
#else
  pariputsf(b,x);
#endif
}

/* English ordinal numbers -- GN1998Apr17 */
static const char *ordsuff[4] = {"st","nd","rd","th"};

const char*
eng_ord(long i)                        /* i > 0 assumed */
{
  switch (i%10)
  {
    case 1:
      if (i%100==11) return ordsuff[3]; /* xxx11-th */
      return ordsuff[0];         /* xxx01-st, xxx21-st,... */
    case 2:
      if (i%100==12) return ordsuff[3]; /* xxx12-th */
      return ordsuff[1];         /* xxx02-nd, xxx22-nd,... */
    case 3:
      if (i%100==13) return ordsuff[3]; /* xxx13-th */
      return ordsuff[2];         /* xxx03-rd, xxx23-rd,... */
    default:
      return ordsuff[3];         /* xxxx4-th,... */
  }
}

static char
vsigne(GEN x)
{
  long s = signe(x);
  if (!s) return '0';
  return (s > 0) ? '+' : '-';
}

static void
voir2(GEN x, long nb, long bl)
{
  long tx=typ(x),i,j,e,dx,lx=lg(x);

  if (tx == t_INT && x == gzero) { pariputs("gzero\n"); return; }
  if (tx == t_SMALL) {
    pariputs("[SMALL ");
    sorstring(VOIR_STRING2,(long)x);
    pariputs("]\n"); return;
  }
  sorstring(VOIR_STRING1,(ulong)x);
  
  pariputsf("%s(lg=%ld%s):",type_name(tx)+2,lx,isclone(x)? ",CLONE" : "");
  sorstring(VOIR_STRING2,x[0]);
  if (! is_recursive_t(tx)) /* t_SMALL, t_INT, t_REAL, t_STR, t_VECSMALL */
  {
    if (tx == t_STR)
      pariputs("chars:");
    else if (tx == t_INT)
      pariputsf("(%c,lgef=%ld):", vsigne(x), lgefint(x));
    else if (tx == t_REAL)
      pariputsf("(%c,expo=%ld):", vsigne(x), expo(x));
    if (nb<0) nb = (tx==t_INT)? lgefint(x): lx;
    if (tx == t_VECSMALL) nb = lx;
    for (i=1; i < nb; i++) sorstring(VOIR_STRING2,x[i]);
    pariputc('\n'); return;
  }

  if (tx == t_PADIC)
    pariputsf("(precp=%ld,valp=%ld):", precp(x), valp(x));
  else if (tx == t_POL)
    pariputsf("(%c,varn=%ld,lgef=%ld):", vsigne(x), varn(x), lgef(x));
  else if (tx == t_SER)
    pariputsf("(%c,varn=%ld,prec=%ld,valp=%ld):",
               vsigne(x), varn(x),lg(x)-2, valp(x));
  else if (tx == t_LIST)
    pariputsf("(lgef=%ld):", lgef(x));
  
  if (tx == t_POL || tx == t_LIST) lx = lgef(x);
  for (i=1; i<lx; i++) sorstring(VOIR_STRING2,x[i]);
  bl+=2; pariputc('\n');
  switch(tx)
  {
    case t_INTMOD: case t_POLMOD:
    {
      char *s = (tx==t_INTMOD)? "int = ": "pol = ";
      if (isonstack(x[1])) blancs(bl); else { blancs(bl-2); pariputs("* "); }
      pariputs("mod = "); voir2((GEN)x[1],nb,bl);
      blancs(bl); pariputs(s);        voir2((GEN)x[2],nb,bl);
      break;
    }
    case t_FRAC: case t_FRACN: case t_RFRAC: case t_RFRACN:
      blancs(bl); pariputs("num = "); voir2((GEN)x[1],nb,bl);
      blancs(bl); pariputs("den = "); voir2((GEN)x[2],nb,bl);
      break;

    case t_COMPLEX:
      blancs(bl); pariputs("real = "); voir2((GEN)x[1],nb,bl);
      blancs(bl); pariputs("imag = "); voir2((GEN)x[2],nb,bl);
      break;

    case t_PADIC:
      if (isonstack(x[2])) blancs(bl); else { blancs(bl-2); pariputs("* "); }
                  pariputs("  p : "); voir2((GEN)x[2],nb,bl);
      blancs(bl); pariputs("p^l : "); voir2((GEN)x[3],nb,bl);
      blancs(bl); pariputs("  I : "); voir2((GEN)x[4],nb,bl);
      break;

    case t_QUAD:
      blancs(bl); pariputs("pol = ");  voir2((GEN)x[1],nb,bl);
      blancs(bl); pariputs("real = "); voir2((GEN)x[2],nb,bl);
      blancs(bl); pariputs("imag = "); voir2((GEN)x[3],nb,bl);
      break;

    case t_POL: case t_SER:
      e = (tx==t_SER)? valp(x): 0;
      for (i=2; i<lx; i++)
      {
      blancs(bl); pariputsf("coef of degree %ld = ",e);
      e++; voir2((GEN)x[i],nb,bl);
      }
      break;

    case t_LIST: case t_QFR: case t_QFI: case t_VEC: case t_COL:
      i = (tx==t_LIST)? 2: 1;
      for (   ; i<lx; i++)
      {
        blancs(bl); pariputsf("%ld%s component = ",i,eng_ord(i));
      voir2((GEN)x[i],nb,bl);
      }
      break;

    case t_MAT:
      if (lx==1) return;
      dx=lg((GEN)x[1]);
      for (i=1; i<dx; i++)
      for (j=1; j<lx; j++)
      {
        blancs(bl); pariputsf("mat(%ld,%ld) = ",i,j);
        voir2(gcoeff(x,i,j),nb,bl);
      }
  }
}

void
voir(GEN x, long nb)
{
  voir2(x,nb,0);
}

char *
type_name(long t)
{
  char *s;
  switch(t)
  {
    case t_SMALL  : s="t_SMALL";   break;
    case t_INT    : s="t_INT";     break;
    case t_REAL   : s="t_REAL";    break;
    case t_INTMOD : s="t_INTMOD";  break;
    case t_FRAC   : s="t_FRAC";    break;
    case t_FRACN  : s="t_FRACN";   break;
    case t_COMPLEX: s="t_COMPLEX"; break;
    case t_PADIC  : s="t_PADIC";   break;
    case t_QUAD   : s="t_QUAD";    break;
    case t_POLMOD : s="t_POLMOD";  break;
    case t_POL    : s="t_POL";     break;
    case t_SER    : s="t_SER";     break;
    case t_RFRAC  : s="t_RFRAC";   break;
    case t_RFRACN : s="t_RFRACN";  break;
    case t_QFR    : s="t_QFR";     break;
    case t_QFI    : s="t_QFI";     break;
    case t_VEC    : s="t_VEC";     break;
    case t_COL    : s="t_COL";     break;
    case t_MAT    : s="t_MAT";     break;
    case t_LIST   : s="t_LIST";    break;
    case t_STR    : s="t_STR";     break;
    case t_VECSMALL:s="t_VECSMALL";break;
    default: err(talker,"unknown type %ld",t);
      s = NULL; /* not reached */
  }
  return s;
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                        FORMATTED OUTPUT                        **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/
static char *
get_var(long v, char *buf)
{
  entree *ep = varentries[v];

  if (ep) return ep->name;
  if (v==MAXVARN) return "#";
  sprintf(buf,"#<%d>",(int)v); return buf;
}

static char *
get_texvar(long v, char *buf)
{
  entree *ep = varentries[v];
  char *s, *t = buf;

  if (!ep) err(talker, "this object uses debugging variables");
  s = ep->name;
  if (strlen(s)>=64) err(talker, "TeX variable name too long");
  while(isalpha((int)*s)) *t++ = *s++;
  *t = 0; if (isdigit((int)*s) || *s++ == '_') sprintf(t,"_{%s}",s);
  return buf;
}

static void
monome(char *v, long deg)
{
  if (deg)
  {
    pariputs(v);
    if (deg!=1) pariputsf("^%ld",deg);
  }
  else pariputc('1');
}

static void
texnome(char *v, long deg)
{
  if (deg)
  {
    pariputs(v);
    if (deg!=1) pariputsf("^{%ld}",deg);
  }
  else pariputc('1');
}

#define padic_nome(p,e) {pariputs(p); if (e != 1) pariputsf("^%ld",e);}
#define padic_texnome(p,e) {pariputs(p); if (e != 1) pariputsf("^{%ld}",e);}

void
etatpile(unsigned int n)
{
  long av=avma,nu,i,l,m;
  GEN adr,adr1;
  double r;

  nu = (top-avma)/BYTES_IN_LONG;
  l = (top-bot)/BYTES_IN_LONG;
  r = 100.0*nu/l;
  pariputsf("\n Top : %lx   Bottom : %lx   Current stack : %lx\n",
          top, bot, avma);

  pariputsf(" Used :                         %ld  long words  (%ld K)\n",
           nu, nu/1024*BYTES_IN_LONG);

  pariputsf(" Available :                    %ld  long words  (%ld K)\n",
           (l-nu), (l-nu)/1024*BYTES_IN_LONG);

  pariputsf(" Occupation of the PARI stack : %6.2f percent\n",r);

  adr=getheap();
  pariputsf(" %ld objects on heap occupy %ld long words\n\n",
                 itos((GEN)adr[1]), itos((GEN)adr[2]));
  avma=av;

  pariputsf(" %ld variable names used out of %d\n\n",manage_var(3,NULL),MAXVARN);
  if (!n) return;

  if (n>nu) n=nu; adr=(GEN)avma; adr1=adr+n;
  while (adr<adr1)
  {
    sorstring(VOIR_STRING3,(ulong)adr);
    l=lg(adr); m = (adr==polvar) ? MAXVARN : 0;
    for (i=0; i<l && adr<adr1; i++,adr++) sorstring(VOIR_STRING2,*adr);
    pariputc('\n'); adr=polvar+m;
  }
  pariputc('\n');
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                           RAW OUTPUT                           **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/
#define isnull_for_pol(g)  ((typ(g)==t_INTMOD)? !signe(g[2]): isnull(g))

/* is to be printed as '0' */
static long
isnull(GEN g)
{
  long i;
  switch (typ(g))
  {
    case t_SMALL:
      return !smalltos(g);
    case t_INT:
      return !signe(g);
    case t_COMPLEX:
      return isnull((GEN)g[1]) && isnull((GEN)g[2]);
    case t_QUAD:
      return isnull((GEN)g[2]) && isnull((GEN)g[3]);
    case t_FRAC: case t_FRACN: case t_RFRAC: case t_RFRACN:
      return isnull((GEN)g[1]);
    case t_POLMOD:
      return isnull((GEN)g[2]);
    case t_POL:
      for (i=lgef(g)-1; i>1; i--)
      if (!isnull((GEN)g[i])) return 0;
      return 1;
  }
  return 0;
}

/* return 1 or -1 if g is 1 or -1, 0 otherwise*/
static long
isone(GEN g)
{
  long i;
  switch (typ(g))
  {
    case t_SMALL:
      switch(smalltos(g))
      {
        case  1: return  1;
        case -1: return -1;
      }
      break;
    case t_INT:
      return (signe(g) && is_pm1(g))? signe(g): 0;
    case t_COMPLEX:
      return isnull((GEN)g[2])? isone((GEN)g[1]): 0;
    case t_QUAD:
      return isnull((GEN)g[3])? isone((GEN)g[2]): 0;
    case t_FRAC: case t_FRACN: case t_RFRAC: case t_RFRACN:
      return isone((GEN)g[1]) * isone((GEN)g[2]);
    case t_POL:
      if (!signe(g)) return 0;
      for (i=lgef(g)-1; i>2; i--)
      if (!isnull((GEN)g[i])) return 0;
      return isone((GEN)g[2]);
  }
  return 0;
}

/* if g is a "monomial", return its sign, 0 otherwise */
static long
isfactor(GEN g)
{
  long i,deja,sig;
  switch(typ(g))
  {
    case t_INT: case t_REAL:
      return (signe(g)<0)? -1: 1;
    case t_FRAC: case t_FRACN: case t_RFRAC: case t_RFRACN:
      return isfactor((GEN)g[1]);
    case t_COMPLEX:
      if (isnull((GEN)g[1])) return isfactor((GEN)g[2]);
      if (isnull((GEN)g[2])) return isfactor((GEN)g[1]);
      return 0;
    case t_PADIC:
      return !signe((GEN)g[4]);
    case t_QUAD:
      if (isnull((GEN)g[2])) return isfactor((GEN)g[3]);
      if (isnull((GEN)g[3])) return isfactor((GEN)g[2]);
      return 0;
    case t_POL: deja = 0; sig = 1;
      for (i=lgef(g)-1; i>1; i--)
        if (!isnull((GEN)g[i]))
      {
        if (deja) return 0;
        sig=isfactor((GEN)g[i]); deja=1;
      }
      return sig? sig: 1;
    case t_SER:
      for (i=lg(g)-1; i>1; i--)
        if (!isnull((GEN)g[i])) return 0;
  }
  return 1;
}

/* return 1 if g is a "truc" (see anal.c) */
static long
isdenom(GEN g)
{
  long i,deja;
  switch(typ(g))
  {
    case t_FRAC: case t_FRACN: case t_RFRAC: case t_RFRACN:
      return 0;
    case t_COMPLEX: return isnull((GEN)g[2]);
    case t_PADIC: return !signe((GEN)g[4]);
    case t_QUAD: return isnull((GEN)g[3]);

    case t_POL: deja = 0;
      for (i=lgef(g)-1; i>1; i--)
        if (!isnull((GEN)g[i]))
      {
        if (deja) return 0;
        if (i==2) return isdenom((GEN)g[2]);
        if (!isone((GEN)g[i])) return 0;
        deja=1;
      }
      return 1;
    case t_SER:
      for (i=lg(g)-1; i>1; i--)
      if (!isnull((GEN)g[i])) return 0;
  }
  return 1;
}

/* write a * v^d */
static void
wr_monome(GEN a, char *v, long d)
{
  long sig = isone(a);

  if (sig) { sp_sign_sp(sig); monome(v,d); }
  else
  {
    sig = isfactor(a);
    if (sig) { sp_sign_sp(sig); bruti(a,sig); }
    else
    {
      sp_plus_sp(); pariputc('('); bruti(a,sig); pariputc(')');
    }
    if (d) { pariputc('*'); monome(v,d); }
  }
}

static void
wr_texnome(GEN a, char *v, long d)
{
  long sig = isone(a);

  if (sig) { putsigne(sig); texnome(v,d); }
  else
  {
    sig = isfactor(a);
    if (sig) { putsigne(sig); texi(a,sig); }
    else
    {
      pariputs(" + \\left("); texi(a,sig); pariputs("\\right) ");
    }
    if (d)
    {
      if (under_texmacs) pariputs("\\*");
      texnome(v,d);
    }
  }
}

static void
wr_lead_monome(GEN a, char *v, long d, long nosign)
{
  long sig = isone(a);
  if (sig)
  {
    if (!nosign && sig<0) pariputc('-');
    monome(v,d);
  }
  else
  {
    if (isfactor(a)) bruti(a,nosign);
    else
    {
      pariputc('('); bruti(a,0); pariputc(')');
    }
    if (d) { pariputc('*'); monome(v,d); }
  }
}

static void
wr_lead_texnome(GEN a, char *v, long d, long nosign)
{
  long sig = isone(a);
  if (sig)
  {
    if (!nosign && sig<0) pariputc('-');
    texnome(v,d);
  }
  else
  {
    if (isfactor(a)) texi(a,nosign);
    else
    {
      pariputs(" \\left("); texi(a,0); pariputs("\\right) ");
    }
    if (d)
    {
      if (under_texmacs) pariputs("\\*");
      texnome(v,d);
    }
  }
}

static void
bruti(GEN g, long nosign)
{
  long tg,l,i,j,r;
  GEN a,b;
  char *v, buf[32];

  if (!g) { pariputs("NULL"); return; }
  if (isnull(g)) { pariputc('0'); return; }
  r = isone(g);
  if (r)
  {
    if (!nosign && r<0) pariputc('-');
    pariputc('1'); return;
  }

  tg = typ(g);
  switch(tg)
  {
    case t_SMALL: pariputsf("%ld",smalltos(g)); break;
    case t_INT: wr_int(g,0,nosign); break;
    case t_REAL: wr_real(g,nosign); break;

    case t_INTMOD: case t_POLMOD:
      pariputs(new_fun_set? "Mod(": "mod(");
      bruti((GEN)g[2],0); comma_sp();
      bruti((GEN)g[1],0); pariputc(')'); break;

    case t_FRAC: case t_FRACN: case t_RFRAC: case t_RFRACN:
      r = isfactor((GEN)g[1]); if (!r) pariputc('(');
      bruti((GEN)g[1],nosign);
      if (!r) pariputc(')');
      pariputc('/');
      r = isdenom((GEN)g[2]); if (!r) pariputc('(');
      bruti((GEN)g[2],0);
      if (!r) pariputc(')');
      break;

    case t_COMPLEX: case t_QUAD: r = (tg==t_QUAD);
      a = (GEN)g[r+1]; b = (GEN)g[r+2]; v = r? "w": "I";
      if (isnull(a))
      {
        wr_lead_monome(b,v,1,nosign);
        return;
      }
      bruti(a,nosign);
      if (!isnull(b)) wr_monome(b,v,1);
      break;

    case t_POL: v = get_var(ordvar[varn(g)], buf);
      /* hack: we want g[i] = coeff of degree i. */
      i = lgef(g)-3; g += 2; while (isnull((GEN)g[i])) i--;
      wr_lead_monome((GEN)g[i],v,i,nosign);
      while (i--)
      {
        a = (GEN)g[i];
        if (!isnull_for_pol(a)) wr_monome(a,v,i);
      }
      break;

    case t_SER: v = get_var(ordvar[varn(g)], buf);
      i = valp(g);
      if (signe(g))
      { /* hack: we want g[i] = coeff of degree i. */
        l = i + lg(g)-2; g += (2-i);
        wr_lead_monome((GEN)g[i],v,i,nosign);
        while (++i < l)
        {
          a = (GEN)g[i];
          if (!isnull_for_pol(a)) wr_monome(a,v,i);
        }
        sp_plus_sp();
      }
      pariputs("O("); monome(v,i); pariputc(')'); break;

    case t_PADIC:
    {
      GEN p = (GEN)g[2];
      i = valp(g); l = precp(g)+i;
      g = (GEN)g[4]; v = GENtostr(p);
      for (; i<l; i++)
      {
      g = dvmdii(g,p,&a);
      if (signe(a))
      {
        if (!i || !is_pm1(a))
        {
          wr_int(a,0,1); if (i) pariputc('*');
        }
        if (i) padic_nome(v,i);
          sp_plus_sp();
      }
      }
      pariputs("O("); padic_nome(v,i); pariputc(')');
      free(v); break;
    }

    case t_QFR: case t_QFI: r = (tg == t_QFR);
      if (new_fun_set) pariputs("Qfb("); else pariputs(r? "qfr(": "qfi(");
      bruti((GEN)g[1],0); comma_sp();
      bruti((GEN)g[2],0); comma_sp();
      bruti((GEN)g[3],0);
      if (r) { comma_sp(); bruti((GEN)g[4],0); }
      pariputc(')'); break;

    case t_VEC: case t_COL:
      pariputc('['); l = lg(g);
      for (i=1; i<l; i++)
      {
        bruti((GEN)g[i],0);
        if (i<l-1) comma_sp();
      }
      pariputc(']'); if (tg==t_COL) pariputc('~');
      break;
    case t_VECSMALL: wr_vecsmall(g); break;

    case t_LIST:
      pariputs("List(["); l = lgef(g);
      for (i=2; i<l; i++)
      {
        bruti((GEN)g[i],0);
        if (i<l-1) comma_sp();
      }
      pariputs("])"); break;

    case t_STR:
      pariputc('"'); pariputs(GSTR(g)); pariputc('"');
      return;

    case t_MAT:
      r = lg(g); if (r==1) { pariputs("[;]"); return; }
      l = lg(g[1]);
      if (l==1)
      { 
        pariputsf(new_fun_set? "matrix(0,%ld)":"matrix(0,%ld,j,k,0)", r-1);
        return;
      }
      if (l==2) 
      {
        pariputs(new_fun_set? "Mat(": "mat(");
        if (r == 2) { bruti(gcoeff(g,1,1),0); pariputc(')'); return; }
      }
      pariputc('[');
      for (i=1; i<l; i++)
      {
      for (j=1; j<r; j++)
      {
        bruti(gcoeff(g,i,j),0);
          if (j<r-1) comma_sp();
      }
      if (i<l-1) { pariputc(';'); sp(); }
      }
      pariputc(']'); if (l==2) pariputc(')');
      break;

    default: sorstring(VOIR_STRING2,*g);
  }
}

static void
matbruti(GEN g, long flag)
{
  long i,j,r,l;

  if (typ(g) != t_MAT) { bruti(g,flag); return; }

  r=lg(g); if (r==1 || lg(g[1])==1) { pariputs("[;]\n"); return; }
  pariputc('\n'); l = lg(g[1]);
  for (i=1; i<l; i++)
  {
    pariputc('[');
    for (j=1; j<r; j++)
    {
      bruti(gcoeff(g,i,j),0); if (j<r-1) pariputc(' ');
    }
    if (i<l-1) pariputs("]\n\n"); else pariputs("]\n");
  }
}

static void
sor_monome(GEN a, char *v, long d)
{
  long sig = isone(a);
  if (sig) { putsigne(sig); monome(v,d); }
  else
  {
    sig = isfactor(a);
    if (sig) { putsigne(sig); if (sig < 0) a = gneg(a); }
    else pariputs(" + ");
    sori(a); if (d) { pariputc(' '); monome(v,d);}
  }
}

static void
sor_lead_monome(GEN a, char *v, long d)
{
  long sig = isone(a);
  if (sig)
  {
    if (sig < 0) pariputc('-');
    monome(v,d);
  }
  else
  {
    sori(a);
    if (d) { pariputc(' '); monome(v,d); }
  }
}

static void
sori(GEN g)
{
  long tg=typ(g), i,j,r,l,close_paren;
  GEN a,b;
  char *v, buf[32];

  switch (tg)
  {
    case t_SMALL: pariputsf("%ld",smalltos(g)); return;
    case t_INT: wr_int(g,chmp,0); return;
    case t_REAL: wr_real(g,0); return;
    case t_STR:
      pariputc('"'); pariputs(GSTR(g)); pariputc('"'); return;
    case t_LIST:
      chmp=0; pariputs("List(");
      for (i=2; i<lgef(g); i++)
      {
      sori((GEN)g[i]); if (i<lgef(g)-1) pariputs(", ");
      }
      pariputs(")\n"); return;
  }
  close_paren=0;
  if (!is_matvec_t(tg)) chmp = 0;
  if (!is_graphicvec_t(tg))
  {
    if (is_frac_t(tg) && gsigne(g) < 0) pariputc('-');
    if (! is_rfrac_t(tg)) { pariputc('('); close_paren=1; }
  }
  switch(tg)
  {
    case t_INTMOD: case t_POLMOD:
      a = (GEN)g[2]; b = (GEN)g[1];
      if (tg == t_INTMOD && signe(a) < 0) a = addii(a,b);
      sori(a); pariputs(" mod "); sori(b); break;
      
    case t_FRAC: case t_FRACN:
      a=(GEN)g[1]; wr_int(a,chmp,1); pariputs(" /");
      b=(GEN)g[2]; wr_int(b,chmp,1); break;

    case t_COMPLEX: case t_QUAD: r = (tg==t_QUAD);
      a = (GEN)g[r+1]; b = (GEN)g[r+2]; v = r? "w": "I";
      if (isnull(a)) { sor_lead_monome(b,v,1); break; }
      sori(a); if (!isnull(b)) sor_monome(b,v,1);
      break;

    case t_PADIC:
    {
      GEN p = (GEN)g[2];
      i = valp(g); l = precp(g)+i;
      g = (GEN)g[4]; v = GENtostr(p);
      for (; i<l; i++)
      {
      g = dvmdii(g,p,&a);
      if (signe(a))
      {
        if (!i || !is_pm1(a))
        {
          wr_int(a,chmp,1); pariputc(i? '*': ' ');
        }
        if (i) { padic_nome(v,i); pariputc(' '); }
          pariputs("+ ");
      }
      }
      pariputs("O(");
      if (!i) pariputs(" 1)"); else padic_nome(v,i);
      pariputc(')'); free(v); break;
    }

    case t_POL:
      if (!signe(g)) { pariputc('0'); break; }
      v = get_var(ordvar[varn(g)],buf);
      i = lgef(g)-3; g += 2; while (isnull((GEN)g[i])) i--;
      sor_lead_monome((GEN)g[i],v,i);
      while (i--)
      {
        a = (GEN)g[i]; if (!isnull_for_pol(a)) sor_monome(a,v,i);
      }
      break;
      
    case t_SER: v = get_var(ordvar[varn(g)],buf);
      i = valp(g);
      if (signe(g))
      { /* hack: we want g[i] = coeff of degree i. */
        l = i + lg(g)-2; g += (2-i);
        sor_lead_monome((GEN)g[i],v,i);
        while (++i < l)
        {
          a = (GEN)g[i]; if (!isnull_for_pol(a)) sor_monome(a,v,i);
        }
        pariputs(" + ");
      }
      pariputs("O(");
      if (!i) pariputs(" 1)"); else monome(v,i);
      pariputc(')'); break;

    case t_RFRAC: case t_RFRACN:
    if (initial)
    {
      char *v1, *v2;
      long sd = 0, sn = 0, d,n;
      long wd = term_width();

      initial = 0;
      v1 = GENtostr0((GEN)g[1], &sori); n = strlen(v1);
      v2 = GENtostr0((GEN)g[2], &sori); d = strlen(v2);

      pariputc('\n');
      i = max(n,d)+2;
      if (i > wd)
      {
        pariputs(v1); pariputs("\n\n");
        for (j=0; j<wd; j++) pariputc('-');
        pariputs("\n\n");
        pariputs(v2);
        pariputc('\n'); return;
      }
      if (n < d) sn = (d-n) >> 1; else sd = (n-d) >> 1;
      blancs(sn+1); pariputs(v1);
      pariputs("\n\n"); for (j=0; j<i; j++) pariputc('-');
      pariputs("\n\n");
      blancs(sd+1); pariputs(v2);
      pariputc('\n'); return;
    }
    pariputc('('); sori((GEN)g[1]); pariputs(" / "); sori((GEN)g[2]);
    pariputc(')'); return;
      
    case t_QFR: case t_QFI: pariputc('{');
      sori((GEN)g[1]); pariputs(", ");
      sori((GEN)g[2]); pariputs(", ");
      sori((GEN)g[3]);
      if (tg == t_QFR) { pariputs(", "); sori((GEN)g[4]); }
      pariputs("}\n"); break;
      
    case t_VEC:
      chmp=0; pariputc('[');
      for (i=1; i<lg(g); i++)
      {
      sori((GEN)g[i]); if (i<lg(g)-1) pariputs(", ");
      }
      pariputc(']'); break;
    case t_VECSMALL: wr_vecsmall(g); break;

    case t_COL:
      if (lg(g)==1) { pariputs("[]\n"); return; }
      pariputc('\n');
      for (i=1; i<lg(g); i++)
      {
        pariputc('['); sori((GEN)g[i]); pariputs("]\n");
      }
      break;
      
    case t_MAT:
    {
      long lx = lg(g);

      if (lx==1) { pariputs("[;]\n"); return; }
      pariputc('\n'); l=lg((GEN)g[1]);
      for (i=1; i<l; i++)
      {
      pariputc('[');
      for (j=1; j<lx; j++)
      {
        sori(gcoeff(g,i,j)); if (j<lx-1) pariputc(' ');
      }
      pariputs("]\n"); if (i<l-1) pariputc('\n');
      }
      break;
    }
    default: sorstring(VOIR_STRING2,*g);
  }
  if (close_paren) pariputc(')');
}

/********************************************************************/
/**                                                                **/
/**                           TeX OUTPUT                           **/
/**                                                                **/
/********************************************************************/

/* this follows bruti exactly */
static void
texi(GEN g, long nosign)
{
  long tg,i,j,l,r;
  GEN a,b;
  char *v, buf[67];

  if (isnull(g)) { pariputs("{0}"); return; }
  r = isone(g); pariputc('{');
  if (r)
  {
    if (!nosign && r<0) pariputc('-');
    pariputs("1}"); return;
  }

  tg = typ(g);
  switch(tg)
  {
    case t_INT: wr_int(g,0,nosign); break;
    case t_REAL: wr_real(g,nosign); break;

    case t_INTMOD: case t_POLMOD:
      texi((GEN)g[2],0); pariputs(" mod ");
      texi((GEN)g[1],0); break;

    case t_FRAC: case t_FRACN: case t_RFRAC: case t_RFRACN:
      texi((GEN)g[1],nosign); pariputs("\\over");
      texi((GEN)g[2],0); break;

    case t_COMPLEX: case t_QUAD: r = (tg==t_QUAD);
      a = (GEN)g[r+1]; b = (GEN)g[r+2]; v = r? "w": "I";
      if (isnull(a))
      {
        wr_lead_texnome(b,v,1,nosign);
        break;
      }
      texi(a,nosign);
      if (!isnull(b)) wr_texnome(b,v,1);
      break;

    case t_POL: v = get_texvar(ordvar[varn(g)],buf);
      /* hack: we want g[i] = coeff of degree i. */
      i = lgef(g)-3; g += 2; while (isnull((GEN)g[i])) i--;
      wr_lead_texnome((GEN)g[i],v,i,nosign);
      while (i--)
      {
        a = (GEN)g[i];
        if (!isnull_for_pol(a)) wr_texnome(a,v,i);
      }
      break;

    case t_SER: v = get_texvar(ordvar[varn(g)],buf);
      i = valp(g);
      if (signe(g))
      { /* hack: we want g[i] = coeff of degree i. */
        l = i + lg(g)-2; g += (2-i);
        wr_lead_texnome((GEN)g[i],v,i,nosign);
        while (++i < l)
        {
          a = (GEN)g[i];
          if (!isnull_for_pol(a)) wr_texnome(a,v,i);
        }
        pariputs("+ ");
      }
      pariputs("O("); texnome(v,i); pariputc(')'); break;

    case t_PADIC:
    {
      GEN p = (GEN)g[2];
      i = valp(g); l = precp(g)+i;
      g = (GEN)g[4]; v = GENtostr(p);
      for (; i<l; i++)
      {
      g = dvmdii(g,p,&a);
      if (signe(a))
      {
        if (!i || !is_pm1(a))
        {
          wr_int(a,0,1); if (i) pariputs("\\cdot");
        }
        if (i) padic_texnome(v,i);
        pariputc('+');
      }
      }
      pariputs("O("); padic_texnome(v,i); pariputc(')');
      free(v); break;
    }
    case t_QFR: case t_QFI: r = (tg == t_QFR);
      if (new_fun_set) pariputs("Qfb("); else pariputs(r? "qfr(": "qfi(");
      texi((GEN)g[1],0); pariputs(", ");
      texi((GEN)g[2],0); pariputs(", ");
      texi((GEN)g[3],0);
      if (r) { pariputs(", "); texi((GEN)g[4],0); }
      pariputc(')'); break;

    case t_VEC:
      pariputs("\\pmatrix{ "); l = lg(g);
      for (i=1; i<l; i++)
      {
      texi((GEN)g[i],0); if (i<lg(g)-1) pariputc('&');
      }
      pariputs("\\cr}\n"); break;

    case t_LIST:
      pariputs("\\pmatrix{ "); l = lgef(g);
      for (i=2; i<l; i++)
      {
      texi((GEN)g[i],0); if (i<lgef(g)-1) pariputc('&');
      }
      pariputs("\\cr}\n"); break;

    case t_COL:
      pariputs("\\pmatrix{ "); l = lg(g);
      for (i=1; i<l; i++)
      {
      texi((GEN)g[i],0); pariputs("\\cr\n");
      }
      pariputc('}'); break;

    case t_STR:
      pariputs("\\mbox{"); pariputs(GSTR(g));
      pariputc('}'); break;

    case t_MAT:
      pariputs("\\pmatrix{\n "); r = lg(g);
      if (r>1)
      {
        l = lg(g[1]);
        for (i=1; i<l; i++)
        {
          for (j=1; j<r; j++)
          {
            texi(gcoeff(g,i,j),0); if (j<r-1) pariputc('&');
          }
          pariputs("\\cr\n ");
        }
      }
      pariputc('}'); break;
  }
  pariputc('}');
}

/*******************************************************************/
/**                                                               **/
/**                        USER OUTPUT FUNCTIONS                  **/
/**                                                               **/
/*******************************************************************/

void
bruteall(GEN g, char f, long d, long flag)
{
  long av = avma;
  void (*oldsp)() = sp;

  sp = flag? &wr_space: &no_space;
  format = f; decimals = d;
  bruti(changevar(g,polvar),0);
  sp = oldsp; avma = av;
}

void
matbrute(GEN g, char f, long d)
{
  long av=avma; sp = &wr_space;
  format = f; decimals = d;
  matbruti(changevar(g,polvar),0); avma=av;
}

void
sor(GEN g, char f, long d, long c)
{
  long av=avma; sp = &wr_space;
  format = f; decimals = d; chmp = c; initial = 1;
  sori(changevar(g,polvar)); avma = av;
}

void
texe(GEN g, char f, long d)
{
  long av=avma; sp = &no_space;
  format = f; decimals = d;
  texi(changevar(g,polvar),0); avma=av;
}

void
brute(GEN g, char format, long decimals) { bruteall(g,format,decimals,1); }

void
outbrute(GEN g) { bruteall(g,'g',-1,1); }

void
outsor(GEN g) { sor(g,'g',-1,1); }

void
outtex(GEN g) { texe(g,'g',-1); }

void
output(GEN x)
{
  outbrute(x); pariputc('\n'); pariflush();
}

void
outmat(GEN x)
{
  matbrute(x,'g',-1); pariputc('\n'); pariflush();
}

void
outbeaut(GEN x)
{
  outsor(x); pariputc('\n'); pariflush();
}

void
outerr(GEN x)
{
  PariOUT *out = pariOut; pariOut = pariErr;
  output(x); pariOut = out;
}

void
outbeauterr(GEN x)
{
  PariOUT *out = pariOut; pariOut = pariErr;
  outbeaut(x); pariOut = out;
}

void
bruterr(GEN x,char format,long decimals)
{
  PariOUT *out = pariOut; pariOut = pariErr;
  bruteall(x,format,decimals,1); pariOut = out;
}

void
fprintferr(char* format, ...)
{
  va_list args;
  PariOUT *out = pariOut; pariOut = pariErr;

  va_start(args, format); vpariputs(format,args);
  va_end(args); pariOut = out;
}

/*******************************************************************/
/**                            FILES                              **/
/*******************************************************************/
/* stack of temporary files (includes all infiles + some output) */
static pariFILE *last_tmp_file = NULL;
/* stack of "permanent" (output) files */
static pariFILE *last_file = NULL;
#if defined(UNIX) || defined(__EMX__)
#  include <fcntl.h>
#  include <sys/stat.h>
#  include <pwd.h>
#  ifdef __EMX__
#    include <process.h>
#  endif
#  define HAVE_PIPES
#endif
#ifndef O_RDONLY
#  define O_RDONLY 0
#endif

pariFILE *
newfile(FILE *f, char *name, int type)
{
  pariFILE *file = (pariFILE*) gpmalloc(strlen(name) + 1 + sizeof(pariFILE));
  file->type = type;
  file->name = strcpy((char*)(file+1), name);
  file->file = f;
  file->next = NULL;
  if (type & mf_PERM)
  {
    file->prev = last_file;
    last_file = file;
  }
  else
  {
    file->prev = last_tmp_file;
    last_tmp_file = file;
  }
  if (file->prev) (file->prev)->next = file;
  if (DEBUGFILES)
    fprintferr("I/O: opening file %s (code %d) \n",name,type);
  return file;
}

static void
pari_kill_file(pariFILE *f)
{
  if ((f->type & mf_PIPE) == 0)
  {
    if (fclose(f->file)) err(warnfile, "close", f->name);
  }
#ifdef HAVE_PIPES
  else
  {
    if (f->type & mf_FALSE)
    {
      if (fclose(f->file)) err(warnfile, "close", f->name);
      if (unlink(f->name)) err(warnfile, "delete", f->name);
    }
    else
      if (pclose(f->file) < 0) err(warnfile, "close pipe", f->name);
  }
#endif
  if (DEBUGFILES)
    fprintferr("I/O: closing file %s (code %d) \n",f->name,f->type);
  free(f);
}

void
pari_fclose(pariFILE *f)
{
  if (f->next) (f->next)->prev = f->prev;
  else if (f == last_tmp_file) last_tmp_file = f->prev;
  else if (f == last_file) last_file = f->prev;
  if (f->prev) (f->prev)->next = f->next;
  pari_kill_file(f);
}

pariFILE *
pari_fopen(char *s, char *mode)
{
  FILE *f = fopen(s, mode);
  if (!f) err(talker, "could not open requested file %s", s);
  if (DEBUGFILES)
    fprintferr("I/O: opening file %s (mode %s)\n", s, mode);
  return newfile(f,s,0);
}

void
pari_unlink(char *s)
{
  if (unlink(s)) err(warner, "I/O: can\'t remove file %s", s);
  else if (DEBUGFILES)
    fprintferr("I/O: removed file %s\n", s);
}

/* Remove one INFILE from the stack. Reset infile (to the most recent infile)
 * Return -1, if we're trying to pop out stdin itself; 0 otherwise
 * Check for leaked file handlers (temporary files)
 */
int
popinfile()
{
  pariFILE *f;

  filtre(NULL, f_ENDFILE);
  for (f = last_tmp_file; f; f = f->prev)
  {
    if (f->type & mf_IN) break;
    err(warner, "I/O: leaked file descriptor (%d): %s",
            f->type, f->name);
    pari_fclose(f);
  }
  last_tmp_file = f; if (!last_tmp_file) return -1;
  pari_fclose(last_tmp_file);
  for (f = last_tmp_file; f; f = f->prev)
    if (f->type & mf_IN) { infile = f->file; return 0; }
  infile = stdin; return 0;
}

static void
kill_file_stack(pariFILE **s)
{
  pariFILE *f = *s;
  while (f)
  {
    pariFILE *t = f->prev;
    pari_kill_file(f);
    *s = f = t; /* have to update *s in case of ^C */
  }
}

void
killallfiles(int leaving)
{
  if (leaving)
  {
    popinfile(); /* look for leaks */
    kill_file_stack(&last_file);
  }
  kill_file_stack(&last_tmp_file);
  infile = stdin;
}

pariFILE *
try_pipe(char *cmd, int fl)
{
#ifndef HAVE_PIPES
  err(archer); return NULL;
#else
  FILE *file;
  char *f;
  VOLATILE int flag = fl;

#  ifdef __EMX__
  if (_osmode == DOS_MODE) /* no pipes under DOS */
  {
    char *s;
    if (flag & mf_OUT) err(archer);
    f = pari_unique_filename("pipe");
    s = gpmalloc(strlen(cmd)+strlen(f)+4);
    sprintf(s,"%s > %s",cmd,f);
    file = system(s)? NULL: (FILE *) fopen(f,"r");
    flag |= mf_FALSE; free(s);
  }
  else
#  endif
  {
    file = (FILE *) popen(cmd, (flag & mf_OUT)? "w": "r");
    if (flag & mf_OUT) flag |= mf_PERM;
    if (flag & (mf_TEST | mf_OUT))
    {
      jmp_buf env;
      void *c;
      int i;
      if (DEBUGFILES) fprintferr("I/O: checking output pipe...\n");
      if (setjmp(env)) return NULL;

      c = err_catch(-1, env, NULL);
      fprintf(file,"\n\n"); fflush(file);
      for (i=1; i<1000; i++) fprintf(file,"                  \n");
      fprintf(file,"\n"); fflush(file);
      err_leave(&c);
    }
    f = cmd;
  }
  if (!file) err(talker,"[pipe:] '%s' failed",cmd);
  return newfile(file, f, mf_PIPE|flag);
#endif
}

void
os_close(long fd)
{
#ifdef WINCE
  CloseHandle((HANDLE)fd);
#else
  close(fd);
#endif
}

void
(*os_signal(int sig, void (*f)(int)))(int)
{
#ifdef WINCE
  return SIG_IGN;
#else
  return signal(sig,f);
#endif
}

void
os_read(long fd, char ch[], long s)
{
#ifdef WINCE
  DWORD chRead;
  ReadFile((HANDLE)fd, ch, s, &chRead, NULL);
#else
  read(fd,ch,s);
#endif
}

long
os_open(char *s, int mode)
{
  long fd;
#ifdef WINCE
  HANDLE h;
  short ws[256];
  if (mode != O_RDONLY) err(impl,"generic open for Windows");
  MultiByteToWideChar(CP_ACP, 0, s, strlen(s)+1, ws, 256);
  h = CreateFile(ws,GENERIC_READ,FILE_SHARE_READ,NULL,OPEN_EXISTING,FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL,NULL);
  fd = (h == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)? (long)-1: (long)h;
#else
  fd = open(s,O_RDONLY);
#endif
  return fd;
}

char *
os_getenv(char *s)
{
#if defined(WINCE) || defined(macintosh)
  return NULL;
#else
  return getenv(s);
#endif
}


/*******************************************************************/
/**                                                               **/
/**                   GP STANDARD INPUT AND OUTPUT                **/
/**                                                               **/
/*******************************************************************/
static char *last_filename = NULL;
static char **dir_list = NULL;

#ifdef HAS_OPENDIR
#  include <dirent.h>
#endif
/* slow, but more portable than stat + S_I[FS]DIR */
int
pari_is_dir(char *name)
{
#ifdef HAS_OPENDIR
  DIR *d = opendir(name);
  if (d) { (void)closedir(d); return 1; }
#endif
  return 0;
}

/* expand tildes in filenames, return a malloc'ed buffer */
static char *
_expand_tilde(char *s)
{
#if !defined(UNIX) && !defined(__EMX__)
  return pari_strdup(s);
#else
  struct passwd *p;
  char *u;
  int len;

  if (*s != '~') return pari_strdup(s);
  s++; u = s; /* skip ~ */
  if (!*s || *s == '/') p = getpwuid(geteuid());
  else
  {
    char *tmp;
    while (*u && *u != '/') u++;
    len = u-s;
    tmp = strncpy(gpmalloc(len+1),s,len);
    tmp[len] = 0;
    p = getpwnam(tmp); free(tmp);
  }
  if (!p) err(talker2,"unknown user ",s,s-1);
  s = gpmalloc(strlen(p->pw_dir) + strlen(u) + 1);
  sprintf(s,"%s%s",p->pw_dir,u); return s;
#endif
}

/* expand environment variables in str, return a malloc'ed buffer
 * assume no \ remain and str can be freed */
static char *
_expand_env(char *str)
{
#if defined(WINCE) || defined(macintosh)
  return str;
#else
  long i, l, len = 0, xlen = 16, xnum = 0;
  char *s = str, *s0 = s, *env;
  char **x = (char **)gpmalloc(xlen * sizeof(char*));

  while (*s)
  {
    if (*s != '$') { s++; continue; }
    l = s - s0;
    if (l)
    {
      s0 = strncpy(gpmalloc(l+1), s0, l); s0[l] = 0;
      x[xnum++] = s0; len += l;
    }
    if (xnum > xlen - 3) /* need room for possibly two more elts */
    {
      long xnew = xlen << 1;
      x = (char **)gprealloc((void*)x, xlen * sizeof(char*),
                                       xnew * sizeof(char*));
      xlen = xnew;
    }

    s0 = ++s; /* skip $ */
    while (is_keyword_char(*s)) s++;
    l = s - s0;
    env = strncpy(gpmalloc(l+1), s0, l); env[l] = 0;
    s0 = getenv(env);
    if (!s0)
    {
      err(warner,"undefined environment variable: %s",env);
      s0 = "";
    }
    l = strlen(s0);
    if (l)
    {
      s0 = strncpy(gpmalloc(l+1), s0, l); s0[l] = 0;
      x[xnum++] = s0; len += l;
    }
    free(env); s0 = s;
  }
  l = s - s0;
  if (l)
  {
    s0 = strncpy(gpmalloc(l+1), s0, l); s0[l] = 0;
    x[xnum++] = s0; len += l;
  }

  s = gpmalloc(len+1); *s = 0;
  for (i = 0; i < xnum; i++) { (void)strcat(s, x[i]); free(x[i]); }
  free(str); free(x); return s;
#endif
}

char *
expand_tilde(char *s)
{
  return _expand_env(_expand_tilde(s));
}

#if defined __EMX__ || defined _WIN32
#  define PATH_SEPARATOR ';'
#else
#  define PATH_SEPARATOR ':'
#endif

void
gp_expand_path(char *v)
{
  char **path, **old, *s;
  int i, n = 0;

  v = pari_strdup(v);
  for (s=v; *s; s++)
    if (*s == PATH_SEPARATOR) { *s = 0; n++; }
  path = (char**) gpmalloc((n + 2)*sizeof(char *));

  for (s=v, i=0; i<=n; i++)
  {
    char *end = s + strlen(s), *f = end;
    while (f > s && *--f == '/') *f = 0;
    path[i] = expand_tilde(s);
    s = end + 1; /* next path component */
  }
  path[i] = NULL; old = dir_list; dir_list = path;
  if (old)
  {
    for (path=old; *path; path++) free(*path);
    free(old);
  }
}

/* name is a malloc'ed (existing) filename. Accept it as new infile
 * (unzip if needed). */
static FILE *
accept_file(char *name, FILE *file)
{
  if (pari_is_dir(name))
  {
    err(warner,"skipping directory %s",name);
    return NULL;
  }
  if (! last_tmp_file)
  {  /* empty file stack, record this name */
    if (last_filename) free(last_filename);
    last_filename = pari_strdup(name);
  }
#ifdef ZCAT
  {
    long l = strlen(name);
    char *end = name + l-1;

    if (l > 2 && (!strncmp(end-1,".Z",2)
#ifdef GNUZCAT
               || !strncmp(end-2,".gz",3)
#endif
    ))
    { /* compressed file (compress or gzip) */
      char *cmd = gpmalloc(strlen(ZCAT) + l + 2);
      sprintf(cmd,"%s %s",ZCAT,name);
      fclose(file); infile = try_pipe(cmd, mf_IN)->file;
      free(cmd); return infile;
    }
  }
#endif
  return infile = newfile(file, name, mf_IN)->file;
}

/* If a file called "name" exists (possibly after appending ".gp")
 * record it in the file_stack (as a pipe if compressed).
 * name is malloc'ed, we free it before returning
 */
static FILE *
try_name(char *name)
{
  FILE *file = fopen(name, "r");
  if (file) file = accept_file(name,file);
  if (!file)
  { /* try appending ".gp" to name */
    char *s = gpmalloc(strlen(name)+4);
    sprintf(s, "%s.gp", name);
    file = fopen(s, "r");
    if (file) file = accept_file(s,file);
    free(s);
  }
  free(name); return file;
}

/* If name = "", re-read last file */
void
switchin(char *name0)
{
  char *s, *name;

  if (*name0)
    name = expand_tilde(name0);
  else
  {
    if (last_filename == NULL)
      err(talker,"You never gave me anything to read!");
    name0 = last_filename;
    name = pari_strdup(name0);
  }
  /* if name contains '/',  don't use dir_list */
  s=name; while (*s && *s != '/') s++;
  if (*s) { if (try_name(name)) return; }
  else
  {
    char **tmp = dir_list;
    for ( ; *tmp; tmp++)
    { /* make room for '/' and '\0', try_name frees it */
      s = gpmalloc(2 + strlen(*tmp) + strlen(name));
      sprintf(s,"%s/%s",*tmp,name);
      if (try_name(s)) return;
    }
  }
  err(openfiler,"input",name0);
}

void
switchout(char *name)
{
  if (name)
  {
    FILE *f = fopen(name, "a");
    if (!f) err(openfiler,"output",name);
    pari_outfile = f;
  }
  else if (pari_outfile != stdout)
  {
    fclose(pari_outfile);
    pari_outfile = stdout;
  }
}

/*******************************************************************/
/**                                                               **/
/**                       TEMPORARY FILES                         **/
/**                                                               **/
/*******************************************************************/
#ifdef __WIN32
#  include <process.h> /* for getpid */
#endif

#ifndef R_OK
#  define R_OK 4
#  define W_OK 2
#  define X_OK 1
#  define F_OK 0
#endif

#ifdef __EMX__
#include <io.h>
static int
unix_shell()
{
  char *base, *sh = getenv ("EMXSHELL");
  if (sh == NULL) sh = getenv ("COMSPEC");
  if (sh == NULL) return 0;
  base = _getname (sh);
  if (stricmp (base, "cmd.exe") == 0 || stricmp (base, "4os2.exe") == 0
      || stricmp (base, "command.com") == 0
      || stricmp (base, "4dos.com") == 0)
    return 0;
  return 1;
}
#endif

/* check if s has rwx permissions for us */
static int
pari_is_rwx(char *s)
{
#if defined(UNIX) || defined (__EMX__) /* TODO: ok for macintosh? */
  return access(s, R_OK | W_OK | X_OK) == 0;
#else
  return 1;
#endif
}

static int
pari_file_exists(char *s)
{
#if defined(UNIX) || defined (__EMX__)
  return access(s, F_OK) == 0;
#else
  return 0;
#endif
}

char *
env_ok(char *s)
{
#if defined(WINCE) || defined(macintosh)
  return NULL;
#else
  char *t = getenv(s);
  if (t && !pari_is_rwx(t))
  {
    err(warner,"%s is set (%s), but is not writeable", s,t);
    t = NULL;
  }
  if (t && !pari_is_dir(t))
  {
    err(warner,"%s is set (%s), but is not a directory", s,t);
    t = NULL;
  }
  return t;
#endif
}

static char*
pari_tmp_dir()
{
  char *s;
#ifdef WINCE
  s = env_ok("TEMP"); if (s) return s;
  return "\\temp";
#endif
  s = env_ok("GPTMPDIR"); if (s) return s;
  s = env_ok("TMPDIR"); if (s) return s;
#ifdef __EMX__
  s = env_ok("TMP"); if (s) return s;
  s = env_ok("TEMP"); if (s) return s;
#endif
#if defined(UNIX) || defined(__EMX__)
  if (pari_is_rwx("/var/tmp")) return "/var/tmp";
  if (pari_is_rwx("/tmp")) return "/tmp";
#endif
  return ".";
}

/* Return a "unique filename" built from the string s, possibly the user id
 * and the process pid (on Unix systems). A "temporary" directory name is
 * prepended. The name returned is stored in a static buffer (gpmalloc'ed
 * permanently). It is DOS-safe (s truncated to 8 chars)
 */
char*
pari_unique_filename(char *s)
{
  static char *buf, *pre, *post = NULL;

  if (!post || !s) /* initialize */
  {
    char suf[64];
    int lpre, lsuf;

    if (post) free(post);
    pre = pari_tmp_dir();
#ifdef UNIX
    sprintf(suf,".%ld.%ld", (long)getuid(), (long)getpid());
#else
    sprintf(suf,".gpa");
#endif
    lsuf = strlen(suf);
    lpre = strlen(pre);
    /* room for suffix + '\0 + prefix + '/' + s + suffix '\0' */
    /*          ^- post        ^- buf         ^- pre          */
    post = (char*) gpmalloc(lpre + 1 + 8 + 2*(lsuf + 1));
    strcpy(post, suf);
    buf = post + lsuf; *buf = 0; buf++;
    strcpy(buf, pre);
    if (buf[lpre-1] != '/') { (void)strcat(buf, "/"); lpre++; }
#ifdef __EMX__
    if (!unix_shell())
#endif
#if defined(__EMX__) || defined(WINCE)
      for (pre=buf; *pre; pre++)
      if (*pre == '/') *pre = '\\';
#endif
    pre = buf + lpre; if (!s) return s;
  }
  sprintf(pre, "%.8s%s", s, post);
  if (pari_file_exists(buf))
  {
    char c, *end = buf + strlen(buf) - 1;
    for (c='a'; c<='z'; c++)
    {
      *end = c;
      if (! pari_file_exists(buf)) break;
    }
    if (c > 'z')
      err(talker,"couldn't find a suitable name for a tempfile (%s)",s);
  }
  return buf;
}

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